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It reviews arguments in favor of the analysis according to which the ellipsis site is syntactically fully represented, and compares the two variants of this analysis the deletion analysis and the LF-copying analysis. It is concluded that the deletion analysis is superior to the LF-copying analysis. A discussion of recoverability follows, which concludes that in order for elided material to be recoverable, a semantic identity condition must be satisfied, but that is not a sufficient condition: syntactic or formal identity Howard Lasnik, Kenshi Funakoshi. Ellipsis in Transformational Grammar.

Oxford University Press. Many proposals on restructuring suggest that restructuring phenomena are only observed when a control predicate takes as a complement a functional projection smaller than a clause. In this paper, I present novel Mandarin data against recent proposals that restructuring control predicates cannot take clausal complements and the related generalization that clausal complements always block restructuring phenomena.

An alternative account of the Mandarin data is presented. The data also bear on the question of whether a finiteness distinction exists in Chinese. In particular, they provide clearer evidence that control predicates can take clausal complements that differ syntactically from those of non-control Nick Huang. Control complements in Mandarin Chinese: Implications for restructuring and the Chinese finiteness debate.

Journal of East Asian Linguistics , 27 4 Language learners use the data in their environment in order to infer the grammatical system that produced that data. A complete theory of language acquisition must explain how learners leverage their developing knowledge in order to draw further inferences on the basis of new data. As Yang and others have argued, the fact that input plays a role in learning is orthogonal to the question of whether language acquisition is primarily knowledge-driven or data-driven J.

Jeffrey Lidz, Laurel Perkins. The importance of input representations. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism , 8 6 Humans have a striking capacity to combine words into sentences that express new meanings. Previous research has identified key brain regions involved in this capacity, but little is known about the time course of activity in these regions, as hemodynamic methods such as fMRI provide little insight into temporal dynamics of neural activation.

We performed an MEG experiment to elucidate the temporal dynamics of structure and content processing within four brain regions implicated by fMRI data from the same experiment: the temporo-parietal junction TPJ , the posterior temporal lobe PTL , the anterior temporal lobe ATL , and the anterior inferior frontal gyrus Human Brain Mapping. In English, the distinction between belief verbs, such as think, and desire verbs, such as want, is tracked by tense found in the subordinate clauses of those verbs. This suggests that subordinate clause tense might be a useful cue for learning the meanings of these verbs via syntactic bootstrapping.

However, the correlation between tense and the belief v. Our proposal in this chapter is that, instead of using concrete cues like subordinate clause tense, learners may utilize more abstract syntactic cues that must be The labeling problem in syntactic bootstrapping: Main clause syntax in the acquisition of propositional attitude verbs. John Benjamins. This book provides a pioneering introduction to heritage languages and their speakers, written by one of the founders of this new field.

Using examples from a wide range of languages, it covers all the main components of grammar, including phonetics and phonology, morphology and morphosyntax, semantics and pragmatics, and shows easy familiarity with approaches ranging from formal grammar to typology, from sociolinguistics to child language acquisition and other relevant aspects of psycholinguistics. The book offers analysis of resilient and vulnerable domains in heritage languages, with a special emphasis on recurrent structural properties that occur across multiple heritage languages.

It is A bound pronoun in the subject position of a finite embedded clause renders the clause boundary relatively transparent to relations ordinarily confined to monoclausal, control, and raising configurations. This bound pronoun effect holds across a wide range of phenomena including Thomas Grano, Howard Lasnik. How to neutralize a finite clause boundary: Phase theory and the grammar of bound pronouns.

Linguistic Inquiry , 49 3 This dissertation analyzes the syntax and processing of adjunct control. Jeffrey Jack Green. Adjunct control: Syntax and processing. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland. In the visual world eye-tracking experiment, adults demonstrated evidence for active dependency formation at the earliest region Developing incrementality in filler-gap dependency processing. Cognition , — How do children learn the meanings of propositional attitude verbs? We argue that children use information contained in both syntactic distribution and pragmatic function to zero in on the appropriate meanings.

Specifically, we identify a potentially universal link between semantic subclasses of attitude verbs, their syntactic distribution and the kinds of indirect speech acts they can be used to perform. As a result, children can use the syntax as evidence about the meaning, which in turn constrains the kinds of pragmatic enrichments they do and do not make in understanding these verbs in conversation.

Valentine Hacquard, Jeffrey Lidz. Children's attitude problems: Bootstrapping verb meaning from syntax and pragmatics. Mind and Language. Language is a sub-component of human cognition. One important, though often unattained goal for both cognitive scientists and linguists is to explicate how the meanings of words and sentences relate to the more general, non-linguistic, cognitive systems that are used to evaluate whether sentences are true or false.

While humans may be flexible in how they use language across contexts Glossa , 3 1 Word meanings are learned under less-than-ideal conditions: in principle, a word can have many possible meanings, and learners must choose the correct one with limited explicit instruction. This problem seems to be exacerbated in the context of attitude verbs, like think , believe , want , which describe abstract mental states.

These verbs lack reliable physical correlates in the real world, so the non-linguistic context provides very limited information to the learner about their meanings. An influential proposal addressing this learning problem posits that learners rely on linguistic context to learn their meanings, via syntactic bootstrapping. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility Learning attitude verb meanings in a morphologically-poor language. It is commonly believed that second language L2 acquisition of lexical tones presents a major challenge for learners from nontonal language backgrounds.

This belief is somewhat at odds with research that consistently shows beginning learners making quick gains through focused tone training, as well as research showing advanced learners achieving near-native performance in tone identification tasks. However, other long-term difficulties related to L2 tone perception may persist, given the additional demands of word recognition and the effects of context. In the current study, we used behavioral and event-related potential ERP experiments to test whether perception of Mandarin tones is difficult Advanced second language learners' perception of lexical tone contrasts.

Studies in Second Language Acquisition. The explanatory power of linguistic theory. De Gruyter Mouton. This paper argues that the filtration-based approach to syntactic competence adopted in the context of minimalist syntax Chomsky , , , where freely-assembled syntactic outputs are filtered at the interfaces with the sensorimotor SM and conceptual-intentional C-I systems, is empirically wrong.

The solution, I argue, is a return to a non-generation alternative, of the kind put forth in Syntactic Structures Chomsky Back to the Future: Non-generation, filtration, and the heartbreak of interface-driven minimalism. Plural morphology exhibits differing interpretations across languages. For example, in downward entailing contexts in English, the plural receives a one or more or inclusive interpretation, whereas in Korean-like languages the plural always receives a more than one or exclusive interpretation, regardless of context.

Heffner, Cristina Schmitt. Grammaticalized number, implicated presuppositions, and the plural. Glossa , 3 1. Propositional attitude verbs, such as think and want , have long held interest for both theoretical linguists and language acquisitionists because their syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic properties display complex interactions that have proven difficult to fully capture from either perspective. Experiments 2a and 2b gather measures of semantic similarity Aaron S. White, Valentine Hacquard, Jeffrey Lidz. Semantic information and the syntax of propositional attitude verbs.

Cognitive Science , This paper reviews some developmental psycholinguistic literature on quantifier scope. How should knowledge be analyzed? Compositionally, as having constituents like belief and justification, or as an atomic concept? In making arguments for or against these perspectives, epistemologists have begun to use experimental evidence from developmental psychology and developmental linguistics.

If we were to conclude that knowledge were developmentally prior to belief, then we might have a good basis to claim that belief is not a constituent of knowledge. In this review, I present a broad range of developmental evidence from the past decade and discuss some of the implications it has for the proper analysis of knowledge. The orthodox perspective Rachel Dudley. Young children's conception of knowledge. Philosophy Compass. In this paper, we present two experiments with 3-year-olds, exploring their interpretation of sentences about desires.

A mature concept of desire entails that desires may conflict with reality and that different people may have conflicting desires. Frontiers in Psychology: Language Sciences , 9 Comprehenders can use rich contextual information to anticipate upcoming input on the fly, but recent findings suggest that salient information about argument roles may not impact verb prediction.

We took advantage of the word order properties of Mandarin Chinese to examine the time course with which argument role information impacts verb prediction. We isolated the contribution of argument role information by manipulating the order of pre-verbal noun phrase arguments while holding lexical information constant, and we examined its effects on accessing the verb in long-term semantic memory by measuring the amplitude of the N component. Experiment 1 showed when the Wait a second! Delayed impact of argument roles on on-line verb prediction.

The Minimalist Program MP has been around for about 25 years, and anecdotal evidence suggests that conventional wisdom thinks it a failure. This review argues that MP has been a tremendous success and has more than met the very high goals it had set for itself. This does not imply that there is not more to be done. There is, a lot more. But the problems are those characteristic of successful and ongoing research programs. Why the perception of failure?

It arises from a misunderstanding concerning the aims of the minimalist project and what, given these aims, it is reasonable Norbert Hornstein.

The Minimalist Program after 25 years. The Annual Review of Linguistics Humans use their linguistic knowledge in at least two ways: on the one hand, to convey what they mean to others or to themselves, and on the other hand, to understand what others say or what they themselves say. In either case, they must assemble the syntactic structures of sentences in a systematic fashion, in accordance with the grammar of their language. In this article, we advance the view that a single mechanism for building sentence structure may be sufficient for structure building in comprehension and production.

We argue that differing behaviors reduce to differences in the available information in Shota Momma, Colin Phillips. The relationship between parsing and generation.

Linguistic analyses suggest that there are two types of intransitive verbs: unaccusatives, whose sole argument is a patient or theme e. Past psycholinguistic experiments suggest that this distinction affects how sentences are processed: for example, it modulates both comprehension processes Bever and Sanz , Friedmann et al. Lee and Thompson , J. Lee and Thompson , McAllister et al.

Given this body of evidence, it is reasonable to assume, as we do here, that this distinction is Shota Momma, L. Robert Slevc, Colin Phillips. Unaccusativity in sentence production. Linguistic Inquiry , 49 1 This corpus study investigates how children figure out that functional modals like must can express various flavors of modality.

We examine how modality is expressed in speech to and by children, and find that the way speakers use modals may obscure their polysemy. Yet, children eventually figure it out. Our results suggest that some do before age 3. We show that while root and epistemic flavors are not equally well-represented in the input, there are robust correlations between flavor and aspect, which learners could exploit to discover modal polysemy.

Learning what 'can' and 'must' can and must mean. Proceedings of the 21st Amsterdam Colloquium Annemarie van Dooren. Dutch 'must' more structure. Proceedings of NELS 47 In this paper we argue that there are two different kinds of syntactic ergativity attested across Mayan languages. In languages that are predominantly VOS, the ban on A-bar extraction of the transitive subject arises because of a blocking effect of the kind proposed by Aldridge , Coon et al. In the case of predominantly VSO languages, however, we propose that syntactic ergativity affects only the transitive subject: extraction of vP-internal adjuncts is unrestricted.

Yu'an Yang, Ying Liu. Exhaustivity and at-issueness: Evidence from L1 Acquisition of Mandarin. Theodore Levin. Distinguishing object agreement and clitic doubling in Noun Incorporation constructions. Proceedings of NELS 47 , Alexander Williams, Jeffrey Green. Why control of PRO in rationale clauses is not a relation between arguments.

Here we ask how faithful retrieval cues are in relation to the grammar. We find strong agreement attraction, which suggests that retrieval processes do not only target unequivocal morphological correlates Exploring the abstractness of number retrieval cues in the computation of subject-verb agreement in comprehension. Implications for theories positing single versus multiple word-forms in cases of category ambiguity also arise.

Using correlations between neural activity in auditory cortex, measured by magnetoencephalography MEG , and standard and context-dependent cohort entropy and phoneme surprisal variables, we consider the possibility of cohort restriction on the basis of form or on the Phoebe Gaston, Alec Marantz. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience , Relatively little is known about how linguistic structure is neurally encoded. In two ERP experiments, the presence of the coordinator resulted in an increased anterior negativity across the entire second noun phrase, even though coordination had no direct relevance for the memory recognition task.

These findings demonstrate that structural connectedness exerts strong, ongoing differences in neural activity even when structured and unstructured materials are Ellen Lau, Chia-Hsuan Liao. Linguistic structure across time: ERP responses to coordinated and uncoordinated noun phrases. In this paper, we consider the role of extragrammatical factors.

In two comprehension experiments, we demonstrate that error rates go up when the similarity increases between an Juliana Gerard, Jeffrey Lidz. Similarity-based interference and the acquisition of adjunct control. Frontiers in Psychology: Language Sciences , 8 We present an artificial language experiment investigating i how speakers of languages such as English with two-way obligatory distinctions between singular and plural learn a system where singular and plural are only optionally marked, and ii how learners extend their knowledge of the plural morpheme when under the scope of negation without explicit training.

Production and comprehension results suggest that speakers of English did learn a system with only optional marking of number. Language Learning and Development , 13 4. This dissertation focuses on when and how children learn about the meanings of the propositional attitude verbs "know" and "think".

But they differ in their veridicality: "think" is non-veridical and can report a false belief; but "know" can only report true beliefs because it is a veridical verb. Furthermore, the verbs differ in their factivity: uses of "x knows p", but not uses of "x thinks p", typically presuppose the truth of "p", because "know" is factive and "think" is not.

How do children figure out these subtle differences between the verbs, given that The role of input in discovering presupposition triggers: Figuring out what everybody already knew. It is the second stage of retrieval and feature-checking that is thought to be error-prone, resulting in agreement attraction. Here we investigate two Zoe Schlueter.

Memory retrieval in parsing and interpretation. This dissertation is concerned with how elliptical sentences are generated. To be specific, I investigate when and in what module ellipsis occurs, and what is elided as a result of ellipsis. With regard to the first research question, I propose that XP ellipsis occurs as soon as all the featural requirements of the licensor of XP ellipsis are satisfied during the derivation, rather than in the other modules.

An important consequence of this proposal is that the point of XP ellipsis can vary depending on the derivational point where all the featural requirements of the licensor are satisfied in narrow Dongwoo Park. When does ellipsis occur, and what is elided?. Broadly speaking, computational phonology encompasses a variety of techniques and goals see Daland for a survey. In this introduction we would like to highlight three aspects of current work in computational phonology: data science and model comparison, modelling phonological phenomena using computational simulations, and characterising the computational nature of phonological patterning with theorems and proofs.

Papers in this thematic issue illustrate all three of these trends, and sometimes more than one of them. The way we group them in this introduction is meant to highlight the similarities between them, and not to diminish the importance of their other contributions Jeffrey Heinz and William J.

Computational phonology today. Phonology , Phonemes play a central role in traditional theories as units of speech perception and access codes to lexical representations. Nevertheless, there is a long history of challenging the phoneme hypothesis, with some theorists arguing for differently sized phonological units e. The phoneme hypothesis is the minority view today. We defend the phoneme hypothesis Nina Kazanina, Jeffrey S. Bowers, William J. Phonemes: Lexical access and beyond. The role of incremental parsing in syntactically conditioned word learning. Cognitive Psychology , — We investigated the processing of pronouns in Strong and Weak Crossover constructions as a means of probing the extent to which the incremental parser can use syntactic information to guide antecedent retrieval.

In Experiment 1 we show that the parser accesses a displaced wh-phrase as an antecedent for a pronoun when no grammatical constraints prohibit binding, but the parser ignores the same wh-phrase when it stands in a Strong Crossover relation to the pronoun. These results are consistent with two possibilities. First, the parser could apply Principle C at antecedent retrieval to exclude the wh-phrase on the basis of the Looking forwards and backwards: The real-time processing of Strong and Weak Crossover.

Glossa , 2 1 Nicholas Longenbaugh and Maria Polinsky. Experimental approaches to ergative languages.

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Ergativity and Austronesian-type voice systems. This chapter argues that split ergativity is epiphenomenal, and that the factors which trigger its appearance are not limited to ergative systems in the first place. Since intransitive subjects do not appear with ergative marking, this straightforwardly accounts for the absence of ergative morphology. Crucially, such bifurcation is not specific to ergative languages; it is simply obfuscated in nominative-accusative environments because there, by definition, transitive and intransitive subjects pattern alike.

Jessica Coon and Omer Preminger. Split ergativity is not about ergativity. How can feature-sharing be asymmetric? Accurately recognizing and resolving ambiguity is a hallmark of linguistic ability. English is a language with scope ambiguities in doubly-quantified sentences like A shark ate every pirate; this sentence can either describe a scenario with a single shark eating all of the pirates, or a scenario with many sharks—a potentially-different one eating each pirate.

In Mandarin Chinese, the corresponding sentence is unambiguous, as it can only describe the single-shark scenario. We present experimental evidence to this effect, comparing native speakers of English with native speakers of Mandarin in their interpretations of doubly-quantified sentences.

Having demonstrated the difference between these Gregory Scontras, Maria Polinsky, C. Edwin Tsai, Kenneth Mai. Cross-linguistic scope ambiguity: When two systems meet. Glossa , 2 1. Here we present a new model that infers verb transitivity by learning to filter out non-basic clauses that were likely parsed in error. In simulations with childdirected speech, we show that this model accurately categorizes the majority of 50 frequent transitive, intransitive and alternating verbs, and jointly learns appropriate parameters for filtering parsing errors.

Our model is thus able to filter out problematic data for verb learning without knowing in advance which data need to be filtered. Children under 4 years of age often evaluate belief reports based on reality instead of beliefs. We argue that the difficulty is actually pragmatic. Adults frequently use belief reports to provide information about reality e.

Young children have difficulty determining when the main point is reality the stove situation vs. Language Learning and Development. We report two experiments using an infant-controlled Habituation-Switch Paradigm. At test, infants in both age groups dishabituated when the scene-sentence pairings got switched e. Angela He, Jeffrey Lidz.

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Verb learning in and month-old English-learning infants. Howard Lasnik and Jeffrey Lidz. The argument from the poverty of the stimulus. Sentences encode hierarchical structural relations among words. Several neuroimaging experiments aiming to localize combinatory operations responsible for creating this structure during sentence comprehension have contrasted short, simple phrases and sentences to unstructured controls.

Some of these experiments have revealed activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus IFG and posterior superior temporal sulcus pSTS , associ- ating these regions with basic syntactic combination. However, the wide variability of these effects across studies raises questions about this interpretation. In an fMRI experiment, we provide support for an alternative hypothesis: these regions underlie top-down syntactic predictions that facilitate sentence processing but are not necessary Cortex Previous studies have shown that speakers of languages such as German, Spanish, and French reactivate the syntactic gender of the antecedent of a pronoun to license gender agreement.

As syntactic gender is assumed to be stored in the lexicon, this has motivated the claim that pronouns in these languages reactivate the lexical entry of their antecedent noun. In contrast, in languages without syntactic gender such as English, lexical retrieval might be unnecessary. We used eye-tracking while reading to examine whether antecedent retrieval involves rapid semantic and phonological reactivation.

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We compared German and English. In German, we found early sensitivity to Coreference and Antecedent Representation Across Languages. Categorical effects are found across speech sound categories, with the degree of these effects ranging from extremely strong categorical perception in consonants to nearly continuous perception in vowels. We show that both strong and weak categorical effects can be captured by a unified model. We treat speech perception as a statistical inference problem, assuming that listeners use their knowledge of categories as well as the acoustics of the signal to infer the intended productions of the speaker.

Simulations show that the model provides close fits to empirical data, unifying past findings of categorical effects in consonants and vowels and capturing A unified account of categorical effects in phonetic perception. Kotek et al. Nat Lang Semant —, , the overall picture that emerges casts doubt on the conclusions that Lidz et al. We disagree with this characterization of the relationship between the two studies.

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Our main aim in this On how verification tasks are related to verification procedures: A reply to Kotek et al.. Natural Language Semantics. Why it has these properties -- and whether they are intended to facilitate language learning -- is matter of contention. We argue that much of this disagreement stems from lack of a formal, guiding theory of how phonetic categories should best be taught to infant-like learners.

In the absence of such a theory, researchers have relied on intuitions about learning to guide the argument. We use a formal theory of teaching, validated through experiments in other domains, as the basis for a detailed analysis of whether IDS is well-designed for Baxter Eaves Jr. Infant-directed speech is consistent with teaching. Psychological Review , 6 Numerous theories have been proposed regarding the brain's organization and retrieval of lexical information.

Neurophysiological dissociations in processing different word classes, particularly nouns and verbs, have been extensively documented, supporting the contribution of grammatical class to lexical organization. However, the contribution of semantic properties to these processing differences is still unresolved. We aim to isolate this contribution by comparing ERPs to verbs e. We find Electrophysiological signatures of event words: Dissociating syntactic and semantic category effects in lexical processing. Previous work has shown that the N ERP component is elicited by all words, whether presented in isolation or in structured contexts, and that its amplitude is modulated by semantic association and contextual predictability.

What is less clear is the extent to which the N response is modulated by semantic incongruity when predictability is held constant. In the current study we examine N modulation associated with independent manipulations of predictability and congruity in an adjective-noun paradigm that allows us to precisely control predictability through corpus counts. Our results demonstrate small N e ects of semantic congruity yellow bag vs.

Collabra , 2 1 Linguistic illusions have provided valuable insights into how we mentally navigate complex representations in memory during language comprehension. Two notable cases involve illusory licensing of agreement and negative polarity items NPIs , where comprehenders fleetingly accept sentences with unlicensed agreement or an unlicensed NPI, but judge those same sentences as unacceptable after more reflection. Existing accounts have argued that illusions are a consequence of faulty memory access processes, and make the additional assumption that the encoding of the sentence remains fixed over time.

This paper challenges the predictions made by these accounts, which assume that illusions should generalize to a broader Dan Parker, Colin Phillips. Negative polarity illusions and the format of hierarchical encodings in memory. Cognition , The Oxford Handbook of Developmental Linguistics. Language switching is common in bilingual processing, and it has been repeatedly shown to induce processing costs. However, only a handful of studies have examined such costs at the sentence level, with a limited few among them having incorporated factors extensively studied in monolingual sentence processing, such as semantic expectedness.

Using the event related potentials ERP technique, this study aimed at exploring whether switching costs were modulated by 1 switching directions, when switching happens between languages of different dominance, and by 2 semantic expectedness, as indicated by cloze probability. Twenty-two Mandarin-Taiwanese early bilinguals, with Mandarin being their dominant and Taiwanese Direction matters: Event-related brain potentials reflect extra processing costs in switching from the dominant to the less dominant language.

Journal of Neurolinguistics , This dissertation is concerned with experiencer arguments, and what they tell us about the grammar. There are two main types of experiencers I discuss: experiencers of psychological verbs and experiencers of raising constructions. Taking Brazilian Portuguese as my main case study, I claim that languages may grammaticalize psychological predicates and their arguments in different ways.

These verb classes exist in languages Carolina Petersen. On experiencers and minimality. Dustin A. Murshed, Mina Dan and Colin Phillips. Research on filler-gap dependencies has revealed that there are constraints on possible gap sites, and that real-time sentence processing is sensitive to these constraints. This work has shown that comprehenders have preferences for potential gap sites, and immediately detect when these preferences are not met.

However, neither the mechanisms that select preferred gap sites nor the mechanisms used to detect whether these preferences are met are well-understood. In this paper, we report on three experiments in Bangla, a language in which gaps may occur in either a pre-verbal embedded clause or a post-verbal embedded clause. This word order variation allows Frontiers in Psychology: Language Sciences , 7 Humans use their grammatical knowledge in more than one way.

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On one hand, they use it to understand what others say. On the other hand, they use it to say what they want to convey to others or to themselves. In either case, they need to assemble the structure of sentences in a systematic fashion, in accordance with the grammar of their language. Despite the fact that the structures that comprehenders and speakers assemble are systematic in an identical fashion i. Shota Momma. Parsing, generation and grammar. Looking ahead. In previous research, children have consistently exhibited non-adultlike behavior for sentences with adjunct control.

Juliana Gerard. The acquisition of adjunct control: Grammar and processing. This paper compares the language of child bilinguals and adult unbalanced bilinguals heritage speakers against that of bilingual native speakers of their home language baseline. We identify four major vectors of correspondence across the language spoken by these three groups. This occurs when either i the property in question is highly robust and is acquired by learners without difficulty or ii the property is already in decline in the baseline.

We illustrate scenario i with Bilingual children and adult heritage speakers: The range of comparison. International Journal of Bilingualism. This paper provides an overview of the phenomenon of heritage language and offers evidence in support of representational differences between baseline native grammars and heritage grammars, arguing that such differences that cannot be reduced entirely to the effects of processing constraints or memory limitations.

Structure vs. Linguistics Vanguard. The words following the homophone were masked, such that prosodic cues were the only disambiguating information. English speaking pre-schoolers can use phrasal prosody for syntactic parsing. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America , 6. To attain native-like competence, second language L2 learners must establish mappings between familiar speech sounds and new phoneme categories. Because adult listeners are less sensitive to allophonic than phonemic contrasts in their native language L1 , novel target language contrasts between L1 allophones may pose special difficulty for L2 learners.

We investigate whether advanced Spanish late-learners of English overcome native language mappings to establish new phonological relations between Establishing new mappings between familiar phones: Neural and behavioral evidence for early automatic processing of nonnative contrasts. Frontiers in Psychology , Children acquiring languages with noun classes grammatical gender have ample statistical information available that characterizes the distribution of nouns into these classes, but their use of this information to classify novel nouns differs from the predictions made by an optimal Bayesian classifier.

We use rational analysis to investigate the hypothesis that children are classifying nouns optimally with respect to a distribution that does not match the surface distribution of statistical features in their input. We propose three ways in which children's apparent statistical insensitivity might arise, and find that all three provide ways to account for the difference between Modeling statistical insensitivity: Sources of suboptimal behavior.

Cognitive Science. Nominative-accusative and ergative are two common alignment types found across languages. In the former type, the subject of an intransitive verb and the subject of a transitive verb are expressed the same way, and differently from the object of a transitive. In ergative languages, the subject of an intransitive and the object of a transitive appear in the same form, the absolutive, and the transitive subject has a special, ergative, form. Ergative languages often follow very different patterns, thus evading a uniform description and analysis.

A simple explanation for that has to do with the idea that ergative languages, much In recent literature, a debate has arisen between two theories of the calculation and realization of morphological case. The more commonly held Agree model states that all case features are assigned to nominals by nearby functional heads. An alternative view, the Dependent Case model, holds that case is assigned to nominals given their structural relationship to one another.

The case a nominal bears is dependent on the presence of other nominals Successive-cyclic case assignment: Korean nominative-nominative case-stacking. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory. Prediction as memory retrieval: Timing and mechanisms. Language, Cognition, and Neuroscience , 31 5 NPIs like any differ in distribution from non-polarity-sensitive indefinites like a : any is restricted to downward-entailing linguistic environments Fauconnier , ; Ladusaw But any also differs from plain indefinites in its semantic contribution; any can quantify over wider domains of quantification than plain indefinites.

While previous acquisition studies have investigated children Lyn Tieu, Jeffrey Lidz. NPI licensing and beyond: Children's knowledge of the semantics of "any". Language Acquisition , This article investigates infant comprehension of filler-gap dependencies. Experiment 1 shows that both age groups appear to comprehend wh-questions. Experiment 2 shows that only the younger infants appear to comprehend relative clauses, while Experiment 3 shows that when parsing demands are reduced, older children can comprehend them as well.

We argue that this discontinuous pattern follows from an offset in the development of grammatical knowledge and the deployment mechanisms for using that knowledge in real time. Fifteen-month-olds, we argue, lack the grammatical representation of filler-gap Annie Gagliardi, Tara M. Mease, Jeffrey Lidz. Language Acquisition , 23 2. However, these proposals have received considerable challenges.

In order to better understand the neural basis of syntactic processing, we performed an fMRI experiment using a constrained sentence production task. We examined the BOLD response to sentence production for active and passive sentences, unstructured word lists, and syntactic perturbation. Perturbation involved cued restructuring of the planned syntax of a sentence mid utterance.

Perturbation was designed to capture the effects William Matchin, Gregory Hickok. A fundamental question in the study of human language acquisition centers around apportioning explanatory force between the experience of the learner and the core knowledge that allows learners to represent that experience. We identify one aspect of grammar that varies unpredictably across a population of speakers of what is ostensibly a single language.

We further demonstrate that the grammatical knowledge of parents and their children is independent. The combination of unpredictable variation and parent—child independence suggests that the relevant structural feature is supplied by Endogenous sources of variation in language acquisition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Acquiring the correct meanings of words expressing quantities seven, most and qualities red, spotty present a challenge to learners. Understanding how children succeed at this requires understanding, not only of what kinds of data are available to them, but also the biases and expectations they bring to the learning task.

Syntactic and lexical inference in the acquisition of novel superlatives. What structural properties do language and music share? Although early speculation identified a wide variety of possibilities, the literature has largely focused on the parallels between musical structure and syntactic structure. Here, we argue that parallels between musical structure and prosodic structure deserve more attention. We review the evidence for a link between musical and prosodic structure and find it to be strong.

In fact, certain elements of prosodic structure may provide a parsimonious comparison with musical structure without sacrificing empirical findings related to the parallels between language and music. We then develop several predictions related to such a hypothesis. Christopher C. Heffner, L. Robert Slevc. Prosodic structure as a parallel to musical structure.

LEC Morphology Noun Phrase 2018 D. Haisan

Frontiers in Psychology: Auditory Cognitive Neuroscience , Language processing research is changing in two ways that should make it more relevant to the study of grammatical learning. First, grammatical phenomena are re-entering the psycholinguistic fray, and we have learned a lot in recent years about the real-time deployment of grammatical knowledge. Second, psycholinguistics is reaching more diverse populations, leading to much research on language processing in child and adult learners. We discuss three ways that language processing can be used to understand language acquisition.

Colin Phillips, Lara Ehrenhofer. The role of language processing in language acquisition. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism , 5 4 Learning obscure and obvious properties of language. The non-finite reason clause has an understood subject, PRO, that is anaphoric; here it may be understood as naming the agent of the event of the host clause.

Yet since the host is a short passive, this agent is realized by no audible dependent. The putative antecedent to PRO is therefore implicit, which it normally cannot be. What sorts of representations subserve the comprehension of this dependency? Here we present four self-paced reading time Processing implicit control: Evidence from reading times.

Frontiers in Psychology: Language Sciences , 6 This paper investigates the geometry of phi-features, with a special emphasis on number and gender in Spanish. We address two sets of questions: i are number and gender bundled together or do they constitute separate categories, and ii does the internal feature composition of number and gender follow a single- or a multi-valued system? Given the lack of consensus on these issues based on primary data, we approach these questions experimentally, using the phenomenon of agreement attraction: a situation in which ungrammatical sequences are perceived as grammatical when one of the NPs is erroneously identified as determining agreement.

Our results The differential representation of number and gender in Spanish. The Linguistic Review. This paper discusses a common reality in many cases of multilingualism: heritage speakers, or unbalanced bilinguals, simultaneous or sequential, who shifted early in childhood from one language their heritage language to their dominant language the language of their speech community. To demonstrate the relevance of heritage linguistics to the study of linguistic competence more broadly defined, we present a series of case studies on heritage linguistics, documenting some of the deficits and abilities typical of heritage speakers, together with the broader theoretical questions they inform.

We consider the reorganization of morphosyntactic feature systems, the reanalysis of atypical argument structure, the Heritage language and linguistic theory. Previous studies have shown that comprehenders use rich contextual information to anticipate upcoming input on the fly, but less is known about how comprehenders integrate different sources of information to generate predictions in real time. A 'bag-of-arguments' mechanism for initial verb predictions.

Language, Cognition and Neuroscience , 30 9. Recent research on the memory operations used in language comprehension has revealed a selective profile of interference effects during memory retrieval. Dependencies such as subject—verb agreement show strong facilitatory interference effects from structurally inappropriate but feature-matching distractors, leading to illusions of grammaticality Pearlmutter et al.

In contrast, dependencies involving reflexive anaphors are generally immune to interference effects Sturt, ; Xiang et al. This contrast has led to the proposal that all anaphors that are subject to structural constraints are immune to facilitatory interference. Here we Interference in the processing of adjunct control. Frontiers in Psychology: Language Sciences , 6. The syntactician must describe the differences in representations that the grammars of different languages can assign. The psycholinguist must describe how the comprehension mechanisms search the space of the representations permitted by a grammar to quickly and effortlessly understand sentences in real time.

The language learner must determine which representations are permitted in her grammar on the basis of her primary linguistic evidence. These investigations are largely pursued independently, and on the basis of qualitatively different data. In this dissertation, I show that these investigations Comparative psychosyntax. Attitude verbs e. Learning the meanings of attitude verbs may be difficult for language learners for several reasons; including the abstractness of the concepts that they refer to, and the linguistic properties. In this dissertation, we investigate the learning process for these words, by looking at an asymmetry that has been observed in the acquisition trajectory: want , which refers to desires, has been claimed to be acquired before think , which refers to beliefs.

We explore this asymmetry in attitude verb acquisition in two ways: by comparing interpretation of think and want , controlling for Kaitlyn Harrigan. Syntactic bootstrapping in the acquisition of attitude verbs. Any kind of uninstructed learning, faced by the challenge that any finite experience is consistent with infinitely many hypotheses, must proceed under guidance. This dissertation investigates guided vocabulary acquisition with a focus on verb learning.

In particular, it examines some proposed early expectations that the young language learner may hold as guidance in learning novel verbs, and investigates the nature of these expectations from different angles. Four lines of studies are reported, each discussing a different question. Study 1 focuses on the expectation that the grammatical category verb picks out the conceptual category event — the verb-event bias, and examines the Angela Xiaoxue He.

Verb learning under guidance. Ura proposes that pied-piping of formal-features of a moved element is constrained by an economy condition like relativized minimality. Sayaka Goto. A Theory of Generalized Pied Piping. Some words are harder to learn than others. For instance, action verbs like run and hit are learned earlier than propositional attitude verbs like think and want. Children nevertheless learn these verbs, so a route other than the senses must exist. There is mounting evidence that this route involves, in large part, inferences based on the distribution of syntactic contexts a propositional attitude verb occurs in—a process known as syntactic Aaron Steven White.

Information and incrementality in syntactic bootstrapping. We propose a language production model that uses dynamic discourse information to account for speakers' choices of referring expressions. Our model extends previous rational speech act models Frank and Goodman, to more naturally distributed linguistic data, instead of assuming a controlled experimental setting. Simulations show a close match between speakers' utterances and model predictions, indicating that speakers' behavior can be modeled in a principled way by considering the probabilities of referents in the discourse and the information conveyed by each word.

Why discourse affects speakers' choice of referring expressions. Prior research suggests that prediction of semantic and syntactic information prior to the bottom-up input is an important component of language comprehension. Recent work in basic visual and auditory perception suggests that the ability to predict features of an upcoming stimulus is even more valuable when the exact timing of the stimulus presen- tation can also be predicted.

However, it is unclear whether lexical-semantic predictions are similarly locked to a particular time, as previous studies of semantic predictability have used a predictable presentation rate. In the current study we vary the temporal predict- ability of target word presentation in the Ellen Lau, Elizabeth Nguyen. The role of temporal predictability in semantic expectation: An MEG investigation. Much work has demonstrated that speakers of verb-final languages are able to construct rich syntactic representations in advance of verb information. This may reflect general architectural properties of the language processor, or it may only reflect a language-specific adaptation to the demands of verb-finality.

The present study addresses this issue by examining whether speakers of a verb-medial language English wait to consult verb transitivity information before constructing filler-gap dependencies, where internal arguments are fronted and hence precede the verb. This configuration makes it possible to investigate whether the parser actively makes representational commitments on the gap position before verb transitivity Hyper-active gap filling.

Kuiper and Allan - An Introduction to English Language 3e - Sentences - Structure of noun phrases

Formal grammatical theories make extensive use of syntactic relations e. Recent research has motivated a model of processing that exploits a cue-based retrieval mechanism in content-addressable memory e. As such, the c-command constraints of formal grammars are predicted to be poorly implemented by the retrieval mechanism. We tested whether memory access mechanisms are able to exploit relational information by investigating the processing of bound variable pronouns, a Relation-sensitive retrieval: Evidence from bound variable pronouns. Previous research in speech perception has shown that category information affects the discrimination of consonants to a greater extent than vowels.

However, there has been little electrophysiological work on the perception of fricative sounds, which are informative for this contrast as they share properties with both consonants and vowels. In the current study we address the relative contribution of phonological and acoustic information to the perception of sibilant fricatives using event-related fields ERFs and dipole modeling with magnetoencephalography MEG.

We show that the field strength of neural responses peaking approximately ms after sound onset co-varies with acoustic factors, while the Categorical effects in fricative perception are reflected in cortical source information. Brain and Language , Previous studies have found that English speakers experience attraction effects when comprehending subject—verb agreement, showing eased processing of ungrammatical sentences that contain a syntactically unlicensed but number-matching noun. In four self-paced reading experiments we examine whether attraction effects also occur in Spanish, a language where agreement morphology is richer and functionally more significant.

We find that despite having a richer morphology, Spanish speakers show reliable attraction effects in comprehension, and that these effects are strikingly similar to those previously found in English in their magnitude and distributional profile. Further, we use distributional analyses to argue that cue-based memory retrieval Sol Lago, Diego E. Agreement attraction in Spanish comprehension. We address two important questions about the relationship between theoretical linguistics and psycholinguistics.

First, do grammatical theories and language processing models describe separate cognitive systems, or are they accounts of different aspects of the same system? We argue that most evidence is consistent with the one-system view. Second, how should we relate grammatical theories and language processing models to each other? Shevaun Lewis, Colin Phillips. Aligning grammatical theories and processing models. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research , 44 1 Argument structure — the pattern of underlying relations between a predicate and its dependents — is at the base of syntactic theory and the theory of the interface with semantics.

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