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Promises and Betrayals: Britain and the Holy Land (Israel/Palestine Documentary) - Timeline

In the s, Turkish firms began to expand on a regional scale. Such an expansion deepened political and military relations between Turkey and the regional countries relatively autonomously from the Western countries.

History of the Middle East

Turkish firms functioning in labour-intensive sectors found the Middle Eastern peripheries, where labour was relatively cheaper, as ideal spaces to expand. Egypt emerged as a major example in textile and glass sectors. The AKP furthermore used foreign aid, such as food and medical supplies, as a means to favour expansion of Turkish firms, particularly in Lebanon, Yemen, Syria, Palestine, and Libya. The advancement of economic relations, nevertheless, enhanced relations of dependence between Turkey and the regional rivals.

The advancement of economic relations was followed by the restructuring of political relations with the countries in the region both in harmony and in tension with the Western countries. The AKP allied with Saudi Arabia in providing arms, medical treatment, and shelter to the armed rebels.

The AKP sometimes went too far in provoking Russia, as was the case with the downing of a Russian jet plane ; the subsequent negotiation process between Russia and the USA put Turkey in a difficult position. The contradictions of the economic and political relations the AKP advanced in the Middle East reinforced the contradictions of military relations with both Western and Middle Eastern countries.

On the one hand, the AKP fostered military industry, military training, and security cooperation with the UAE and Saudi Arabia, which became two of the top three importers of arms from Turkey by On the other hand, the AKP allied with Qatar, where Turkey introduced an overseas military base in , against Saudi Arabia and the UAE, which severed diplomatic and trade relations with Qatar in as a result of its relations with Iran and the Muslim Brotherhood.

Such an attempt has fuelled economic and geopolitical competition between and among Turkey and the Western and Middle Eastern countries. It is questionable to what extent the AKP would be able to afford such antics, considering the immediacy of a massive economic crisis knocking on the door. Nevertheless, the fundamental characteristic of capitalism is the motive to seek profit. In times of economic crises, successful firms are able to hang in and swallow up the ones that are not. For this reason, economic crises serve as opportunities for the rich to get richer.

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Share link. The sites targeted in Iraq are bases of Iranian-backed militias which may have been storing Iranian missiles. The explosion in Beirut came just hours after an Israeli air strike near Damascus, where a team of Iranian and Hizbullah operatives were said to have been preparing to launch drones against Israel, apparently in retaliation for the attacks in Iraq. This time Mr Netanyahu was quick to acknowledge responsibility. Mr Macron has been trying to salvage the nuclear deal signed by Iran and six world powers in Mr Trump seemed tempted by the idea. So did Mr Rouhani, at first.

But, under pressure from hardliners, he later backed away, saying that there can be no meeting unless America first lifts its sanctions on Iran.

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Middle East

Israel is keen for America to maintain pressure on Iran. In recent weeks Israeli officials have warned that this strategy now includes a full rapprochement with Hamas, the Palestinian Islamist movement in Gaza. With the war in Syria all but over, normal service has been resumed. But the Iranian network may have become overextended and easier for rival espionage agencies to penetrate.


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  8. Israel has carried out hundreds of air strikes on Iranian targets in Syria. Senior Israeli officers claim they have succeeded in preventing Iran from establishing missile bases there.

    Why border lines drawn with a ruler in WW1 still rock the Middle East - BBC News

    Mr Netanyahu is currently defence minister as well as prime minister; successful strikes increase his popularity. His tactics are also causing unease in Washington, where sources in the Pentagon have briefed the media that Israel is behind the explosions in Iraq. The Americans fear this could destabilise the Iraqi government. Like Iran, Israel too may have overreached. Israel has closed roads and airspace on its northern border in anticipation of an attack.

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    Still, neither side wants to see a major escalation. Hizbullah is not just an Iranian proxy but also a Lebanese political party with a stake in maintaining calm. Mr Netanyahu wants to preserve his tough image, but is anxious not to upset Israeli voters on the eve of elections. With luck, such calculations will work to contain a dramatic escalation of hostilities.

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    But the conflict between Israel and Iran is widening. Join them. Subscribe to The Economist today. Media Audio edition Economist Films Podcasts. New to The Economist?