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The literature of the former Spanish colonies in the Americas is treated separately under Latin American literature. By , when the Muslim invasion of the Iberian Peninsula began, Latin spoken there had begun its transformation into Romance. These jarchas provide evidence of a popular poetry begun perhaps as early as the 10th century, and they are related to traditional Spanish lyric types e. Vernacular chroniclers mention many other heroic minstrel narratives, now lost, but, as a result of the incorporation of these narratives into chronicles, themes and textual passages can be reconstructed.

A major influence on prose was exercised by Arabic. Oriental learning entered Christian Spain with the capture of Toledo from the Muslims, and the city became a centre of translation from Oriental languages. A romance of the Seven Sages, the Sendebar , was translated likewise through Arabic, with other collections of Eastern stories.

A propitious intellectual atmosphere fomented the founding of universities, and under Alfonso X of Castile and Leon reigned —84 vernacular literature achieved prestige. Alfonso, in whose chancery Castilian replaced Latin, mandated translations and compilations aimed at fusing all knowledge—Classical, Oriental, Hebrew, and Christian—in the vernacular.

The Book of Count Lucanor and Patronio —which consists of 51 moral tales variously didactic, amusing, and practical—drew partly on Arabic, Oriental, and popular Spanish sources. Eustace, the Roman general miraculously converted to Christianity. It enthralled the popular imagination through the 16th century with its sentimental idealism, lyrical atmosphere, and supernatural adventure.

The result mingled eroticism with devotion and invited readers to interpret often-equivocal teachings. Ruiz handled alexandrine metre with new vigour and plasticity, interspersing religious, pastoral-farcical, amorous, and satirical lyrics of great metrical variety. More-exotic elements appeared in the Proverbios morales c. Gregory, and St. Numerous examples from medieval Spanish literature and folklore echoed the same themes e. The early 15th century witnessed a renewal of poetry under Italian influence.

The collection showed not merely the decadence of Galician-Portuguese troubadours but also the stirrings of more-intellectual poetry incorporating symbol, allegory , and Classical allusions in the treatment of moral, philosophical, and political themes. Francisco Imperial, a Genoese who settled in Sevilla and a leader among new poets, drew on Dante , attempting to transplant the Italian hendecasyllable syllable line to Spanish poetry. He is still acknowledged as a precursor of the Renaissance, though his sonnets and long poems, which reflect his Italian-influenced training, are often neglected in favour of his charming rustic songs of native inspiration.

Written with greater satiric force than other works that treated the dance of death theme, it introduced characters e. Although not intended for dramatic presentation, it formed the basis for later dramas. The early Spanish humanists included the first grammarians and lexicographers of any Romance tongue. The dominant character, the procuress Celestina, is depicted with unsurpassed realism and gives the work the title by which it is commonly known, La Celestina. Surviving for centuries in the oral tradition, Spanish ballads romances link medieval heroic epic to modern poetry and drama.

The earliest datable romances —from the midth century, although the romance form itself has been traced to the 11th century—treated frontier incidents or lyrical themes. The romance form octosyllabic, alternate lines having a single assonance throughout was quickly adopted by cultured poets and also became the medium of choice for popular narrative verse.

Garcilaso added intense personal notes and characteristic Renaissance themes to a masterful poetic technique derived from medieval and Classical poets. The popularity of the short native metres was reinforced by traditional ballad collections romanceros and by the evolving drama. Models for epic poetry were the works of Italian poets Ludovico Ariosto and Torquato Tasso , but the themes and heroes of Spanish epics celebrated overseas conquest or defense of the empire and the faith. Spanish drama originated in the church. Juan del Encina helped emancipate the drama from ecclesiastical ties by giving performances for noble patrons.

His conception of drama evolved during his long stay in Italy, with native medievalism transforming into Renaissance experimentation. His four prose comedies have been called clumsy, but his 10 pasos showed his dramatic merits. Major landmarks in historical writing emanated from the New World, transmuting vital experience into literature with unaccustomed vividness. These chivalric romances perpetuated certain medieval ideals, but they also represented pure escapism, eventually provoking such literary reactions as the pastoral novel and the picaresque novel. The former, imported from Italy, oozed nostalgia for an Arcadian golden age; its shepherds were courtiers and poets who, like the knights-errant of chivalric romance, turned their backs on reality.

Another reaction appeared in the picaresque novel , a genre initiated with the anonymous Lazarillo de Tormes Passing from master to master, he depicted life from underneath. Miguel de Cervantes , the preeminent figure in Spanish literature, produced in Don Quixote part 1, ; part 2, the prototype of the modern novel.

Where Don Quixote saw and attacked an advancing army, Sancho saw only a herd of sheep; what Sancho perceived as windmills were menacing giants to the questing knight-errant. She too published Italian-inspired short stories, in the collections Novelas amorosas y ejemplares ; Eng. The writings of St. John of the Cross achieved preeminence through poems of exalted style expressing the experience of mystic union. What this great Spanish playwright did possess was a remarkable sense of stagecraft and the ability to make the most intricate plot gripping.

Lope, who claimed authorship of more than 1, comedias , towered over his contemporaries. Lope ransacked the literary past for heroic themes, chosen to illustrate aspects of the national character or of social solidarity. The cloak-and-sword play, which dominated drama after Lope, was pure entertainment, exploiting disguise, falling in and out of love, and false alarms about honour. In it affairs of the lady and her gallant are often parodied through the actions of the servants.

The cloak-and-sword play delighted by the dexterity of its intricate plotting, its sparkling dialogue, and the entangled relationships depicted between the sexes. Although their names were suppressed and their works left largely unperformed for centuries, several women dramatists of the Siglo de Oro left extant plays.

She also penned short dramatic panegyrics, romances , and other books. In poetry and prose the early 17th century in Spain was marked by the rise and spread of two interrelated stylistic movements, often considered typical of the Baroque. Authors shared an elitist desire to communicate only with the initiated, so that writings in both styles present considerable interpretive difficulties. Poets writing in this style created hermetic vocabulary and used stilted syntax and word order, with expression garbed and disguised in Classical myth , allusion , and complicated metaphor , all of which rendered their work sometimes incomprehensible.

The other stylistic movement, conceptismo , played on ideas as culteranismo did on language. Aiming at the semblance of profundity, conceptista style was concise, aphoristic, and epigrammatic and thus belonged primarily to prose, especially satire. Concerned with stripping appearances from reality, it had as its best outlet the essay.

The Scavenger and The Swindler. His best comedies provide subtle critiques of urban mores, combining laughter with tragic foreboding La dama duende [; The Phantom Lady ]. His tragedies probe the human predicament, exploring personal and collective guilt Las tres justicias en una [ c. His best-known plays, appropriately classified as high drama, include El alcalde de Zalamea c. These liturgical plays range in their artistry from the immediate metaphorical appeal of El gran teatro del mundo c.

Culteranismo and conceptismo , although symptoms rather than causes of decline, contributed to stifling imaginative literature, and, by the close of the 17th century, all production characterizing the Siglo de Oro had essentially ceased. The exhibition features iconic works by some of the most highly regarded Aboriginal artists of the Sandover region, knm North-East of Alice Springs, the Urapuntja Artists of Utopia. Kathleen Boyle Leitmotif. Read more …. Heather Fairnie Mapping - Territories and Landscape. Diane Kilderry 9 May — 12 July Kudditji Kngwarreye 6 February — 3rd May Maggie Diaz - Into the Light.

A Retrospective curated by Gwendolen De Lacy. April 11 — July 12 The Melbourne Reef Exhibition. Ronnie Sexton Aisling Gheal bright dream. Station Rats and other Scum Bags. Stories of Ancestors. Aboriginal Art Across Australia. January Ever Present Past. Footprint of the Spirits Touring Exhibition. Burrinja acknowledges the Traditional Owners, the Wurundjeri people of the Kulin Nation, on whose land we meet, share and work. We pay our respects to Elders past, present and emerging, and extend our respect to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people from all nations of this land.

Friends of Burrinja Membership. Art - Past Exhibitions. Presented in cooperation with Goethe-Institut Australien. Created as a catalyst for imaginary play, The Wonder Wigwam uses books, environment and sensory triggers to evoke imagination and wonder. Illustrative books that do not include text will also be included for those who find reading difficult due to age or language barriers. The installation will include a soundscape made in collaboration with local sound artist Dave Thomson.

The purpose of the soundscape is to offer our participants sensory triggers that support the idea of an outdoor environment. The natural environment of the Dandenong Ranges plays a large role in the conceptual development of Dave's art practice which compliments the outdoor theme of The Wonder Wigwam. More about Burrinja Kids - Stay and Play.

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Funds raised will be used to assist with the facilitation of workshops, hiring of speakers for events, and enabling the Growing Pains team to provide support and development opportunities for young artists. Other past exhibitors including Paul Prato, Kell Kitsch, and Emma Woodhams-Bertozzi will have stalls set up on the day, selling artworks and items, allowing event attendees to buy directly from artists, with stall sales going back to the artists themselves. Proceedings 1pm — Artwork viewing, bidding registrations and artists stalls open 1.

There will be nibbles and drinks provided on the day. Mandy Martin: Triggers in the Landscape Mandy Martin is a practising artist with a national and international reputation for her concern about environmental issues, landscape conservation and land management. This exhibition draws on a range of paintings produced by the artist in recent years which focus on relationship between climate change, CO2 emissions and cool-burn fire management by Indigenous land owners. Martin has held numerous exhibitions in Australia and overseas.

Her works are held in many public and private collections across Australia. Between — she was a lecturer at the School of Art, Australian National University in Canberra and a fellow from Grab a set of headphones, get comfy in a disco chair and enjoy listening to some fun, family friendly pop music and classic tracks.

Of course, sitting can be tricky when listening to catchy, toe tapping pop tunes - so feel free to get up and dance too! Paste Growing Pains Initiative Reuse, recycle, cut and paste. We're celebrating the wonderful world of collage, whether it be digital or traditional Catalogues can be purchased on the day. He was drawn to the Australian landscape in general and Aboriginal culture in particular in all its manifestations. His curiosity with Aboriginal art and culture called him to the Top End for long periods of time throughout since the s.

Arnhemland especially made a deep impression on him, and he returned several times to this spirited country. Sense of Place will present original sketches and excerpt of this diary together with a selection of larger paintings, which show the artist as an observer exploring the spiritual connections to country and people as Hodgkinson poses on the most central of human questions: Where do we come from?

He is a man so various that he hardly gives you time to focus on any single one talent. He is a painter, a sculptor, an architect, a designer of habitats and ambiences. His creative energy is enormous. Enjoy world class theatre with Burrinja Season tickets and dinner for two at The Skylark Room plus a special night at Twilight Cottage in Olinda including breakfast hamper, bubbly and chocolates.

Only people who provide Burrinja with their contact detail will be eligible for this prize Prize winner will be notified by Thursday 16 November Theatre tickets valid for Burrinja season shows only excluded events by external hirers Vouchers are only valid for Vouchers not transferable for cash.

It's more than just paint splashed on a canvas. It's images distorted until we barely know what they are, it's pattern, shape and form, it's emotion poured onto canvas and paper. Celeste Magee - Conversation. Sculpture artist Jessie Yvette Journoud-Ryan smashes found pieces of crockery and gives them new life in the form of sculptures, using these man-made shapes and materials to create interpretations of natural forms such as flowers and birds. Handweaver and printmaker Michele Fountain creates textural objects and images featuring wildflowers and trees, using lovingly hand-crafted textiles and hand-cut linoleum prints.

Tattoo artist and painter Amy Duncan channels her love of botanicals and traditional vanitas themes into finely detailed still life paintings, featuring her own flower arrangements and found natural objects. This eclectic collection of work is a playful reflection on and celebration of the botanical, the universal language of flowers and natural history. Exhibition opening: Sat. Michele Fountain. Oswald's Anglican Church, Glen Iris. He is an artist who fuses Indigenous art styles with Western forms of story telling.

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In this exhibition he presents a collection of acrylic paintings reflecting the diversity of Indigenous identity and its disconnect from the dominant culture. He explores his own journey of discovery to reclaim the sense of country on a personal and community level. Artist Talk Sat. Oswald's Anglican Church in Glen Iris. Following the talk light refreshments will be served. Image: Susie Parry. Skin Side Out. Renate Crow Burrinja Kids Stay and Play free family activity by local artist Renate Crow You are invited to look at some shapes we make with our bodies. Where does that bit go in between when we connect with someone, when we thumb wrestle or Hi five.

That bit in between, see inside this hidden place imprinted on silicone pieces, look closely at the textures. What patterns do our bodies have, match up the pieces, where are they from. See if you can find the belly button! Capture yourself, what impression will you leave in the sand? Draw your hand shape on the community canvas and see how many we get in 3 months. Parents are encouraged to photograph the impressions in the sand and canvas to take home. Experience the work of artists from Arlpwe Arts in Ali Curung, located in the spinifex country four hours north of Alice Springs, in the Northern Territory.

Burrinja is proud to present new paintings by members of the four language groups who reside in Ali Curung Warlpiri, Warumungu, Kaiditch and Alyawarra. Due to unforeseen circumstances the artists are no longer able to visit Burrinja during the exhibition. Contemporary Australian Landscape Ebony Finck, Jonathan Carmichael and Vicki Moritz Landscape photography plays a key role in defining who we are as a nation, and how we see ourselves in relation to the environment we inhabit.

The landscape can play a key role in both uniting and disconnecting us. Australia is a vast and unforgiving land, still largely uninhabited. The landscape seems charged with spiritual presence and a stark emptiness that haunts our suburbs and extends across deserts to the deep sea on every side. Across these dusty plains and rocky grounds, flora and fauna astoundingly flourish, from the wildflower to the Australian Brumby. The idea of struggle is deeply entrenched in our national psyche.

Even in the harshest environments, life beckons us to understand our history and surroundings. This exhibition draws together three Victoria-based contemporary photographers to continue this dialogue with the surrounding land. Exhibition opening Fri. They will outline the Epiphyte project - an augmented reality bush walk that uses a game engine to create a new way of experiencing the natural environment. Join the project team and gain insight into the game development process, inviting input in to the playtesting leading up to thegame launch in November Indigo is a natural blue dye, which comes from a plant.

Through a process of reduction and oxidation, indigo surrenders many shades of heavenly blue hues. With the global awareness for sustainable lifestyles, indigo is once again being considered a precious commodity. The students have gained the knowledge of how to care for this living vat and how to coax natural blue from it. Students also watched the hard-hitting documentary film, The True Cost. Substantiated by investigating artists who are manipulating clothing to create works of art, this was the springboard from which students launched themselves into Invoking Indigo.

Some embraced Japanese techniques of shibori, others attempted to create a variety of clean hues on clothing to form large organic works; all conveyed the message to tread more lightly on the planet. Image: Detail , Jude Craig. It is elementary to Aboriginal art. The paintings on display illustrate more than the relationship to country - they ask fundamental questions about the artist's identity. Those fleeting moments of joy and delight or the capacity to envelope oneself in sensation allows the connection to our inner child, or for the young to express on an emotional level how visually and textually their senses are stimulated.

My leaf rainbow with rainbow rain aims for you to discover the fun of immersing yourself in a hyperreal magical place. Jenny Saulwick and Community Art Jenny, a sculptor by training, has worked for over three decades creating art with local communities. She has been an inspirational artist and artisan, a facilitator and organiser, a teacher and a visionary.

For many years Jenny has been a strong, persistent and creative campaigner in the Dandenongs. The exhibition presents a number of projects which Jenny, now in her eighties, has been involved with, and offers insight to her creative process and work with diverse ages to create art. Burrinja marks the sad passing of Jenifer Ann Saulwick on May 20 this year.

Jenny was not only an inspirational artist and activist within our community, but contributed greatly to the establishment of the Dandenong Ranges Community Cultural Centre - Burrinja. Jenny served on the original council committee in and was a founding member of the Association's Board in , serving the cultural centre for over 10 years as a Board member until and contributing actively in many other ways to the region's artistic and cultural life. Jenny lived life to the fullest, and will be sadly missed.

The artists have all been selected by Katherine Reynolds, a local fine art student and long standing Burrinja Volunteer. Audiences will be charmed by the eclectic mix of drawing, painting and mixed media works presented in a range of styles.

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  5. Often mistaken for a vast, empty desert, the Arabian Peninsula has a rich and diverse landscape and culture. In antiquity, it enjoyed a monopoly on the incense trade, which gave rise to a network of oases. These settlements, in turn, were linked by a series of caravan routes that eventually connected to the great metropolitan centers of the Ancient Near East and the Greco-Roman world. The lucrative incense trade encouraged both the flow of imported luxury objects into the peninsula and the development of a rich, local tradition with its own distinct artistic language.

    In the seventh century CE, Islam spread from Mecca to the rest of the region; the incense roads were supplanted with pilgrimage roads that brought countless travelers and their goods to Arabia. This new religious and trade network fostered its own unique artistic tradition, which spread throughout the Islamic world. Over the past forty years, archaeologists in Saudi Arabia have begun to uncover this cultural history. Many of the objects in the exhibition were discovered only in the past ten years and hint at the still largely unknown history of ancient Arabia.

    Inspired by both archival photographs and contemporary news reports, Jananne Al-Ani has created a new body of work that explores enduring representations of the Middle Eastern landscape. Shadow Sites II and two earlier video works are exhibited alongside a selection of extraordinary original prints by renowned archaeologist Ernst Herzfeld — Separated by nearly a century, these works pose fascinating questions about the impact of photography on views of the Middle East.

    Spectacular finds from the very heart of Central Asia and the ancient Eurasian steppe cultures form the basis of Nomads and Networks: The Ancient Art and Culture of Kazakhstan challenging traditional views of early nomadic societies. From early stone petroglyphs carved with human and animal forms to mark important locations, to offering stands made of bronze and dazzling gold adornments that affirm trade networks throughout Central Asia and beyond, these excavated objects help to place the ancient cultures of Kazakhstan within the network of the wider ancient world in the 1st millennium BCE.

    Of particular interest are the complex relationships and networks made between nomads, more sedentary cultures and their natural environment and materials available in the landscape. Thanks to the region's permafrost conditions, burial sites have preserved rare organic materials for centuries. An elite burial site at Berel, located in the Bukhtarma River Valley of the Altai Mountains of eastern Kazakhstan, reveals insights into this long-hidden culture. One burial mound kurgan at Berel yielded the remains of a thirteen horses that had been interred with their owner, who must have been an important person of high status.

    This landmark exhibition presents some of the most significant archaeological discoveries made in Kazakhstan over the last fifteen years, with more than objects on display. On our blog, preeminent archaeologists working in Kazakhstan today report live from the field. India's Mughal emperors, who reigned over a vast and wealthy empire that extended from Kabul over most of the South Asian subcontinent between the sixteenth and the nineteenth century, were passionate about lavish manuscripts and paintings.

    Between and , the greatest Mughal patrons—the emperors Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan—formed grand workshops that brought together and nurtured India's leading painters, calligraphers and illuminators. The exhibition brings together fifty of the finest folios and paintings from the Freer Sackler collection, which form one of the world's most important repositories of Mughal and Persian painting.

    In Victorian England in the nineteenth century, life was separated into gendered spheres. The masculine realm was often characterized by outward-directed activities of physical exertion, industry, and business. Women, on the other hand, were identified with the private world of imagination and self-reflection, as seen in this selection of prints by American expatriate artist James McNeill Whistler. Images of private, enclosed spaces, inhabited by quiet, self-contained figures, recur from his earliest etchings in the mids to his later watercolors and lithographs.

    Family members, close friends, or the artist's current mistress almost always serve as the focus of these interior scenes. This sense of intimacy is underscored by the works' small scale, which compels the viewer to stand close and study the scene carefully. Whistler's interiors thus encourage us to retreat—like his subjects—into a realm of "sweet silent thought.

    In Chinese culture many birds are endowed with strong symbolic associations, both on their own and especially in combination with certain auspicious flowers. In the tenth century, birds and flowers emerged as major themes in traditional Chinese painting. At first such images were based on the close observation of nature and employed fine detail and color; later they derived from the painting tradition itself and often were rendered in only ink.

    While the primary interest of many artists was to capture the essence or spirit of their subjects, most birds in the paintings can be scientifically identified. More than thirty-five species of birds are depicted in flight, on the ground or in water, or perched on tree branches. From until his death in , Japanese artist Kano Kazunobu born labored to produce one hundred paintings depicting the miraculous interventions and superhuman activities of the five hundred disciples of the Buddha. Now widely regarded as one of the most impressive feats of Buddhist iconography created during the Edo period — , this remarkable ensemble was largely overlooked through much of the twentieth century.

    The whole ensemble had not been viewed publicly since World War II. The Arthur M. Ken and Kiyo Hitch, preeminent collectors of modern and contemporary Japanese graphic art, have chosen the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery as the future home for their extensive collection of 20th— and 21st—century Japanese prints. Art of Darkness is the first in a series of exhibitions to celebrate this extraordinary gesture. With approximately 20 prints and related copperplates, this exhibition samples the visions of Hamaguchi Yozo — and Hamanishi Katsunori born The works highlight the visceral production process and show remarkably innovative uses of the traditional European technique of mezzotint in the hands of Japanese artists.

    The second of three exhibitions celebrating the great Japanese artist Hokusai — , this installation includes such highlights as Boy Viewing Mount Fuji and three masterworks of Hokusai's last years, Thunder God, Fisherman, and Woodcutter. This exhibition complements two Hokusai installations in the Freer. Hokusai: Japanese Screens , on view through July 29, , features a magnificent pair of six-panel folding screens of Mount Fuji. Now numbering less than worldwide, Buddhist paintings created during the late Goryeo dynasty in Korea illustrate hopes for peace and good fortune in this world and for salvation in the afterlife.

    These fourteenth-century images, commissioned as a show of religious merit and produced on an intimate scale appropriate for private devotional use, epitomize a golden age in Korean Buddhist art. Goryeo Buddhist Paintings: A Closer Look presents three rare icons from the Freer and Sackler collections that never before have been displayed together. Rendered in rich mineral pigments augmented with gold, the silk surfaces of these complex paintings have darkened with age. In this exhibition, the three works are joined by photographic details taken by Buddhist painting specialist Chung Woothak, which show the masterly brushwork and superimposed patterns that are difficult to distinguish in the now-darkened originals.

    The photographs also reveal the materials and techniques that typify this special type of Buddhist icon. A dozen examples from the Freer show how tea utensils embody changes in weather. Rough stoneware conveys warmth, for example, while porcelain is cool to the touch.

    Find symbolism in paintings of Chinese plant life native to each season, such as wildflowers, garden flowers, aquatic flowers, and flowering trees. From the s until her death, the Empress Dowager Cixi — was the dominant political figure of China's Qing dynasty — , acting as regent to two successive emperors. During her reign, the Qing court came to be regarded as conservative, corrupt, and incompetent. The situation worsened after the Boxer Rebellion of , when Cixi was accused of encouraging the killing of foreigners and Chinese Christians.

    Her reputation plummeted in China and worldwide. Along with inviting foreign visitors to receptions at the palace, these efforts included arranging for a series of photographic portraits of Cixi, some of which were presented as diplomatic gifts. Taken by a young photographer named Xunling ca.

    But closer examination of the photographs reveals many of them were crafted as part of a strategic diplomatic and public relations campaign. Sixteen paintings of emperors, empresses, princes, and princesses represent three generations of the Qing dynasty imperial family, from the early to mid-eighteenth century. Almost evenly divided between images of men and women, the portraits—some nearly life-size—show the royal family members dressed in either the elaborate formal robes required for attendance at court or more casual attire at moments of leisure.

    The women are generally depicted wearing sumptuous embroidered robes and fabulous jewelry made of gold and pearls or inlaid with dazzling turquoise kingfisher feathers. The men are shown riding horses, relaxing in a garden or boat, meditating quietly with rosary beads, or seated in a formal setting among their favorite possessions. Donated to the Sackler between and by brothers Osborne and Victor Hauge and their wives Gratia and Takako, these remarkable objects provide the focus for a detailed narrative of the migration of pots from their makers to their users.

    Included in the Hauge gift are more than vessels made in Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and Laos, together with Chinese bowls and jars exported to Southeast Asia. Earthenware continues to be used to cool drinking water, cook rice and curries over a wood fire and heat water for reeling silk. Watertight stoneware jars store grains, transport goods for long-distance trade and brew the rice beer essential for hospitality and ceremonies. Pieces from the Hauge collection show the regional diversity of earthenware and stoneware production throughout time.

    The swirling designs of red-painted earthenware pots from prehistoric Thailand and the forms of glazed and unglazed stoneware jars from 17th- to 19th-century central Vietnam suggest the depth and diversity of the ceramic traditions. Spanning four millennia of invention and exchange, from the prehistoric period to the present, the objects on view were crafted for rituals, burials, domestic use and trade. Glazed stoneware dishes, emblazoned with blue or brown floral designs, demonstrate how the shapes and decorations of Chinese ceramics inspired the addition of painted decorations to tableware made in kilns in Vietnam and Thailand.

    In turn, such ceramics competed successfully in the international trade of the 15th and 16th centuries, reaching distant markets from Japan to Turkey. The exhibition narrative interweaves discoveries of excavations and shipwrecks in Asia to convey the passage of works similar to the Hauge objects on their way to distant markets. Jars that reached their intended destinations—which included Indonesia, the Philippines and Japan—often became heirlooms, valued for their exotic origins, superior technology and beauty.

    Multimedia artist Hale Tenger born , Izmir, Turkey creates videos and installations that examine the tangible and intangible traces of events. George Hotel in Beirut—the site of the assassination of Rafik Hariri, former prime minister of Lebanon—while it was being renovated. Gently flapping curtains, shifting light, and Serdar Ateser's simple musical composition evoke a historical moment with profound repercussions that still haunt this physical space. Ceramics have always been an integral part of Korean culture and an important vehicle of the Korean aesthetic.

    The Korean ceramics on view were made between and , and range from tableware and Buddhist cinerary urns made for courtiers to bowls, bottles and storage jars used by peasants. Despite great differences of age and status continuity is evident. Form tends to emerge from the dynamic of shaping rather than being imposed from the outside.

    Even on court wares, finish is gentle, not obsessive. The range of glaze colors is narrow and understated, complementing vivid color found elsewhere in such elements as palace and temple architecture, painting, and traditional costume. Among the first Americans to collect ceramics of the Choson period , Charles Lang Freer was introduced to them in the s by Japanese dealers and collectors.

    Blue-and-white Chinese porcelain became a hot item in London in the s, a craze the British press mockingly dubbed "Chinamania. The Chinamania exhibition at the Freer explores Chinese porcelain in Whistler's England, where it was first valued as aesthetic inspiration but soon proliferated as a commodity. Featured are twenty-three works of art: blue-and-white porcelain objects from the Peacock Room ; eight wash drawings of Kangxi porcelain that Whistler produced for a collector's catalogue; and paintings, pastels, and etchings inspired by the artist's interest in porcelain.

    Majestic sixth-century Chinese Buddhist sculpture is combined with 3-D imaging technology in this exploration of one of the most important groups of Buddhist devotional sites in early medieval China. Once home to a magnificent array of sculptures—monumental Buddhas, divine attendant figures, and crouching monsters framed by floral motifs—the limestone caves were severely damaged in the first half of the twentieth century, when their contents were chiseled away and offered for sale on the international art market. In Echoes of the Past , ancient sculptural masterpieces are united with a set of innovative digital components, including a video installation that offers an immersive, kinetic re-creation of one of the largest stone temples.

    Touch screens and research kiosks offer more detailed information about the site and the themes explored in the exhibition. The Perspectives series will focus on single-projection videos, beginning with History of Chemistry I by Lu Chunsheng b. A mesmerizing experience of a vaguely familiar but remote world, History of Chemistry I follows a group of men as they wander from somewhere beyond the edge of the sea through a vast landscape to an abandoned steel factory. Using long shots and remote settings, Lu Chunsheng enigmatically refers to a distant history while conveying the sense of dislocation wrought by modernization.

    Twentieth-century Japanese artists give fresh interpretations to the time-honored art of porcelain in this selection of works from the collection. The Japanese artists who made the ceramic vessels featured in Contemporary Japanese Porcelain focus on innovative approaches to decoration. Most of them live and work in communities where decorated porcelain has been produced for several centuries.

    These artists seek ways of revitalizing the decorative formats associated with those places by incorporating familiar color schemes into contemporary design. The distinctive decorations—often large-scale geometric patterns in contrast to the delicate pictorial decoration used in the past—range from natural motifs to more abstract designs, and are created using iron and cobalt pigments and platinum, gold, and silver enamels.

    Coinciding with the National Museum of Natural History's annual orchid show, the Sackler will present twenty works related to orchids in Chinese painting, ranging in date from the fifteenth to the nineteenth century. The cymbidium orchid Chinese: lan has been cultivated in China for hundreds of years. Since the time of the philosopher Confucius — BCE , the cymbidium has been associated with principled, moral gentlemen whose talent and integrity go unrecognized by the powers that be.

    Over the centuries, various literary and philosophical works attributed other virtues to the orchid, such as friendship, loyalty, and patriotism. Because of these associations, members of the scholar-official class came to identify strongly with the flower. The cymbidium orchid became an independent subject of Chinese painting during the Song dynasty — Artists created meticulous depictions of the orchid employing outline and color. From the thirteenth century on, most scholar artists chose to paint the leaves and blossoms calligraphically, using only ink.

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    Following the Mongol conquest of the Song in and the founding of the Yuan dynasty, the "ink orchid" took on strong overtones of loyalty to the fallen regime. The subject also held appeal for certain groups that flourished at the margins of society. Monk artists belonging to the Chan school of Buddhism, for example, appropriated the ink orchid for their own purposes during the fourteenth century.

    Similarly, while the plant remained perennially popular among scholar artists, during the late Ming and early Qing dynasties 16th—17th century the ink orchid also became a mainstay for a coterie of renowned courtesan painters, many of whom formed romantic liaisons with prominent scholars of the time. Twelve of the fifteen paintings on view in The Orchid in Chinese Painting belong to the ink orchid tradition.

    Two scholar's rocks and three ceramic bowls used to hold the blossoming bulbs will also be displayed. Matsushima is renowned for its sheltered bay dotted with more than picturesque islands covered with pine trees. Remarkably, the temple and much of the surrounding landscape survived the earthquake and tsunami that struck the Pacific coast of Japan. Seasons: Chinese Landscapes explores the seasonal themes and activities that frequently appear in Chinese painting, such as wandering in nature, visiting friends, or composing poetry.

    The works also depict the unique moods and feelings associated with each season. To allow Chinese voices to inform the interpretation of the works, the exhibition features numerous translations of inscriptions, colophons, and other directly related poems and texts. This exhibition celebrates the millennium of the poet Firdawsi's Shahnama Book of Kings , considered one of the world's great works of literature. Composed of more than , lines, the epic poem recounts the history of Iran from the beginning of time to the conquest of Islam in the seventh century.

    The Shahnama 's sweeping narrative and colorful mix of myth and history have inspired the remarkable manuscript paintings on view. Created in the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries, these illustrations convey the visual power of Firdawsi's words. The exhibition is organized by the Arthur M. The speed and scale of change in contemporary China has been registered by a number of artists exploring the country's cities and industrial remnants.

    In stark contrast, Hai Bo born , Changchun, China looks to the desolate plains of northeastern China. Trained as a painter, Hai Bo took up photography in the s as he became captivated by the camera's ability to stop time and evoke memories.

    The beginnings of prose

    For over two decades, he has been returning to his hometown in Jilin Province to capture the people and places of his youth, creating deeply moving portraits of resilience amidst the growing isolation of rural China. Featuring five stunning, large scale photographs from his Northern Series, this exhibition offers moments to enter the vast panoramas of the artist's childhood memories, observe the subtle changes of nature across seasons, and encounter the gentle transience of life.

    The fascinating story of bronze sculpture and casting in Cambodia is revealed through thirty-six exceptional works. Magnificent examples dating from the prehistoric period to the post-Angkorian period third century BCE to sixteenth century CE present the origins, uses, and techniques of bronze casting and the development of a distinctly Cambodian style.

    This exhibition is the result of an ongoing partnership between the Freer and Sackler Galleries and the National Museum of Cambodia. The museums have worked together to establish a metals conservation laboratory in Cambodia, the first in that nation. Seven of the works on view, discovered in , are among the first bronzes conserved in the lab by the staff of the National Museum.

    Gods of Angkor travels to the Getty Center of the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles in early Sackler Gallery in collaboration with the J. This exhibition of photographs and videos by Fiona Tan, who was born in Indonesia in and now lives in Amsterdam, is the first major presentation of her work in the United States. Tan's installations deftly meld the past with the present in profoundly evocative works that explore the power of images in constructing memories and histories.

    Whether drawing on old photographs, seventeenth-century Dutch painting, or nineteenth-century architecture, her conceptual and aesthetic approach adds a compelling dimension to understanding Asian art and culture in the world today. The exhibition is generously supported by the Mondriaan Foundation, Amsterdam, with additional support from the Netherland-America Foundation. Around the year , a heightened fascination with the design and uses of ceramics, combined with advances in technology, launched an era of extraordinarily diverse and accomplished ceramic production in Japan.

    The center of this efflorescence was southern Japan, and in particular the island of Kyushu. Hundreds of kilns produced both stoneware coated in muted glazes and porcelain ornamented with cobalt blue or multicolored enamels for the domestic market with a focus on utensils for dining and for the tea ceremony and for export to Europe and Southeast Asia. The wide variety of local styles of glazing and decoration invented by Kyushu potters over three centuries is impressive.

    Some of the finest Chinese paintings in the Freer Gallery's collection are on view, including several by well-known Chinese artists that have not been displayed in years. Diverse traditional categories are represented, such as religious and secular portraits from the Northern Song dynasty — , landscapes from the Southern Song dynasty — , paintings of literati during the Yuan dynasty — , artworks produced in the Zhe and Wu schools of the Ming dynasty — , and images of Orthodox and Individual painters of the early Qing dynasty — Together these exceptional works trace the development of Chinese painting over generations.

    When Charles Lang Freer , the Detroit industrialist and founder of the Freer Gallery of Art, began to collect contemporary American paintings in the early s, he concentrated on a small group of artists—most notably Thomas Dewing and Dwight Tryon —whose interest in surface beauty resonated with the work of James McNeill Whistler , the expatriate American whose work had already attracted Freer's interest.

    By the turn of the century, Freer's focus would shift to Asia, but his interest in tonal, textured surfaces remained constant, allowing him to establish "points of contact" between his Asian and American collections. This one-room exhibition brings together a group of decorative paintings by Dewing and Tryon, together with a selection of ceramics from the Detroit Pewabic Pottery, to highlight the importance of "surface beauty" to Freer's aesthetic philosophy. Nocturnes, the term James McNeill Whistler applied to his nearly abstract moonlit landscapes, represent his signature contribution to nineteenth-century art.

    Inverting the plein-air principles of the French impressionists, Whistler created a series of works in which darkness, rather than light, structures the visual image. Over the course of the decade he produced more than thirty oil paintings with this theme. He subsequently expanded his exploration of urban darkness in London, Venice, and Amsterdam through the use of lithography, watercolor, and above all, etching to document and transform the texture of night. The Tibetan Shrine from the Alice S. Kandell Collection This extraordinary Tibetan Buddhist shrine room is on public display for the first time.

    Acknowledged by practicing Buddhists as a sacred space, this shrine room contains hundreds of superb works of Buddhist art created between the twelfth and nineteenth centuries, including bronze sculptures, thangkas scroll paintings , ritual objects, textile banners, and painted furniture. Lama, Patron, Artist: The Great Situ Panchen Through new scholarship and recently discovered paintings, the remarkable Situ Panchen is brought into focus as an artist, teacher, and founder of the Palpung monastery.

    Thangkas designed and painted by Situ, sculptures of his chosen deity Tara, and Chinese works from the Freer's collection reveal Situ's genius, his enduring influence, and his engagement with Buddhist culture across Asia.

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    Organized by the Rubin Museum of Art in New York City, this exhibition is part of the Sackler Gallery's "Asia in America" program that showcases the holdings of important American institutional collections of Asian art. Children at play in fragrant gardens or at work in lush fields have been a recurring theme in Chinese art over the past two millennia. Objects and paintings dating from the first through the twentieth century, complemented by ceramics and ivory carvings, depict children playing in urban and rural settings. Relationships among family members, from infants in mothers' arms to siblings splashing in a tub of water, are explored through various media.

    Common childhood delights of catching butterflies and skipping rope are juxtaposed with lively images of boys herding oxen and romping in fields, all lovingly depicted in engaging scenes throughout the centuries. Coinciding with the tenth anniversary of the normalization of relations between Vietnam and the United States, this installation of 22 works reflects recent scholarship linking Vietnamese ceramics in the Freer collection with 12th- to 16th-century production centers in the Red River delta in northern Vietnam. Works on view include some originally thought by Freer founder Charles Lang Freer to be Japanese, as well as a unique glazed stoneware pillow in the shape of a tortoise that was a gift to the gallery from Dean Frasche.

    A bowl thought to be Chinese when it was acquired in , but now identified as identical to bowls excavated from the 15th-century layer of the Thang Long citadel site in Hanoi, is also on view. Through photography and video, Yeondoo Jung, who was born in Jinju, Korea, in , invites viewers into the dreams and memories of others. In two new video works, including a multi-screen installation, anonymous strangers are filmed as they recall moments in their lives. While they share their stories of past loves, youthful ambitions, hardship, and lifelong secrets, a team of stagehands reconstructs the settings for these memories.

    Jung emphasizes the artifice of each scene by orchestrating clever set recreations and filming the process from beginning to end, or by manipulating camera angles and lighting effects in long outdoor sequences. Ultimately, these videos suggest that, when filtered through nostalgia and the passage of time, reality exists somewhere between truth and imagination. The "Perspectives" series of contemporary Asian art resumes with "S-Curve" by internationally renowned Indian sculptor Anish Kapoor. Consisting of two sixteen-foot lengths of polished steel that are gently curved to create a continuous convex and concave wall, the work recalls the exploration of form that Kapoor most famously presented in "Cloud Gate" in Chicago's Millennium Park.

    At a height of seven feet and with highly reflective surfaces, "S-Curve" engages viewers in a powerful physical and visual experience within the Sackler Gallery. Known for his sublime approach to pure form, space, and materials since the early s, Kapoor continues to examine spatial perception and the immateriality of the object through this work. Whether by consulting the position of the planets, casting horoscopes, or interpreting dreams, the art of divination was widely practiced throughout the Islamic world.

    The most splendid tools ever devised to foretell the future were illustrated texts known as the Falnama Book of omens. Notable for their monumental size, brilliantly painted compositions, and unusual subject matter, the manuscripts, created in Safavid Iran and Ottoman Turkey in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, are the center piece of Falnama: The Book of Omens.

    The first exhibition devoted to these extraordinary manuscripts, Falnama: The Book of Omens sheds new light on their artistic, cultural, and religious significance. The exhibition comprises more than sixty works of art from international public and private collections and is accompanied by a fully illustrated catalogue. Beginning in the seventeenth century, Japanese artists developed a distinctive repertoire of techniques for applying gold and silver to objects made of diverse materials ranging from lacquer, metal, and wood for decorated objects to paper and silk for calligraphy and painting.

    Gold and silver played a prominent and integral role in the technical and aesthetic history of Japanese painting, calligraphy, lacquer, metalwork, and architecture, as seen in the thirty-two works on view. Exceptional Japanese methods for lacquer decoration in gold and silver resulted in refined pictorial designs that today form a distinctive achievement in the arts of East Asia.

    The dynamism of her paintings is set in motion in her video works, where the repetition of abstract forms becomes a buzzing hive, calligraphy whirls in and out of view, and imaginary curves morph into vivid landscapes. Similarly, Sun Xun b. Filming his hand-drawn images, he transforms clocks, magicians, words, and insects into animated symbols that flicker across the screen in dark allegories on the nature of historical consciousness and the passage of time. Writing, Carving, and Rubbing traces the evolution of Chinese calligraphy through six major types of script: oracle-bone, seal, clerical, cursive, running, and standard.

    These scripts share a common origin and were developed in sequence, with standard script perfected during the Tang dynasty Over three thousand years each has acquired its own distinct characteristics. Eminent calligraphers have reinterpreted the accomplishments of past masters and created original works that showcase their personal styles. This stylistic evolution continues to enliven Chinese calligraphy to the present day.

    Also included in this presentation are writing tools, such as the Four Treasures of the Scholar's Studio paper, ink stick, brush, and inkstone , as well as seals and seal paste. This popular tale appeared in works commissioned for elite patrons as well as in widely-available printed books. For the first time since their acquisition for the collections of the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M.

    Organized by the Smithsonian Institution's Arthur M. Sackler Gallery in collaboration with The Moscow Kremlin Museums, this presentation features more than sixty exceptional objects that large embassies, diplomatic missions, and trade delegations from Ottoman Turkey and Safavid Iran offered to the tsars of Russia. Ranging in date from the early sixteenth to the late seventeenth century, these lavish gifts and tributes include rarely seen arms and armor and jeweled ceremonial vessels and regalia intended for the Russian court or the Orthodox church.

    Some of the finest pieces are equestrian in nature: stirrups with pearls, golden bridles with turquoises and rubies, and saddles covered with velvet and silk. The exhibition, only on view in Washington, D. The exhibition was supported by an indemnity from the Federal Council on the Arts and organized in cooperation with the Embassy of the Russian Federation to the United States. The work culminates in a dramatic moment that captures the younger generation's struggle to reconcile a rich cultural and religious heritage with the rapid currents of global economic and social change.

    The endurance of ritual in contemporary society is a starting point in Fiona Tan's stunning video installation, Saint Sebastian. With careful attention to images and sound, Tan transports the viewer into a sensual experience of a centuries-old Japanese tradition that marks a woman's coming-of-age. In so doing, she comments on the history of moving image and the role of the visual in shaping perceptions of "exotic" cultures. Museum founder Charles Lang Freer considered renowned painter Winslow Homer to be one of his "miscellaneous Americans," a term Freer used for a group of artists whose works he admired but did not collect in great numbers.

    Freer's artworks by this American master are now on view, including three technically innovative watercolors and the monumental oil painting Early Evening. Homer began work on it in in Cullercoats, England, and completed it in in his studio in Prouts Neck, Maine. Guests of the Hills presents depictions of recluses and recreational travelers in Chinese landscape painting over a seven-hundred-year period, from the mid-eleventh to the mid-eighteenth century. Chinese landscape painting particularly appealed to members of the scholar-official class, who were intrigued by images of the free-roaming mountain sage or retired gentlemen living amid nature's beauty.

    Other works depict actual excursions or journeys, or they were created as a gift for someone about to embark on a trip. Drawing on recent histories of conflict and destruction, both artists returned to their native countries to explore societies in transition. After leaving Soviet-occupied Afghanistan in and subsequent years of living in India and the West, Abdul currently divides her time between Los Angeles and Kabul. In Afghanistan she has created a series of short performance-based videos staged among the ruins of her homeland. In "Bricksellers of Kabul" and her most recent work, "In Transit" , children retrieve the debris of war and turn them into objects for survival and play.

    For Abdul, children and their imaginative acts embody the simplicity of hope amidst devastation. In "The Farmers and the Helicopters" , he focuses on the helicopter both as a "death machine" and as a technological dream. For the first time since the Freer Gallery of Art opened in , works from its American collection will be displayed with works from outside the museum. A series of 22 pastels of the Maine coast by American landscape painter Dwight Tryon — will be on view at the Arthur M.