Manual International Perspectives on Higher Education: Challenging Values and Practice

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This reminds us that the broader pedagogical environment is to determing the development of skills amongst learners. Many employers feel that new entrants to the labour market lack transferable skills, pointing out that such skills cannot be learned from a textbook, but must be developed through quality education. Employers require people who are able to 'deploy their knowledge to solve problems, take the initiative and communicate with team members, rather than just follow prescribed routines' UNESCO, , Attention is currently being drawn to education quality and the learning processes in order to address, post, the inadequacies of current EFA and education MDGs overly preoocupied with education access and outcomes.

Furthermore, instrumentalist and technical views of education are increasingly being complemented by acknowledgement of the pivotal social role of education in equipping learners with the knowledge, skills and values to play an active part in transforming the world around them for the better UNESCO, b and the Education First Initiative website. This is clearly demonstrated by the Education First Initiative, which states: 'It is not enough for education to produce individuals who can read, write and count.

Education must be transformative and bring shared values to life. It must cultivate an active care for the world and for those with whom we share it'. Due to its long history of implementing transformative educational approaches with a global dimension, development education can make a strong contribution to these discussions, particularly with respect to critical pedagogy and global skills,. There is therefore a need for greater dialogue between actors in the fields of development education and education in low- and middle-income countries in order to ensure appropriate strategies and approaches are set for the future.

Alexander, R. Research Monograph No. Andreotti, V. Development Education: Debates and Dialogues , pp. Barrett, A. EdQual Working Paper No. Bangay, C. Black, M. Bourn, D. Bryan, A.

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    6. Lack of Qualified Teachers: A Global Challenge for Future Knowledge Development.
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    8. Beyond Position paper. She has previously worked with several development NGOs in Brussels and development education NGOs in Slovenia, where she carried out research within the formal school system. Nicole Blum lectures and conducts research on development education, environmental education and education for sustainable development.

      Her research interests also include pedagogy and learning in development education, internationalisation and global perspectives in higher education, the ethnography of education, and access to and participation in education. Prior to being Director of the Centre, Dr. Douglas Doug was Director of the UK Development Education Association and has been an advisor and consultant to a number of European countries in the formation of their development education strategies. He has written extensively on development education, global perspectives in education, global citizenship and education for sustainable development.

      Peer-reviewed journal that promotes cutting-edge research and policy debates on global development. Published by the Graduate Institute Geneva, it links up with international policy negotiations involving Geneva-based organisations. Contents - Previous document. Outline 1. Reflections on the Importance of Quality in Education. Full text PDF k Send by e-mail.

      Introduction 1 Development and aid programmes around the world have always needed public endorsement, either in the form of voluntary donations or through the political support of taxpayers for government funding. Development Education and its Missing Links to Development Discourse 10 As a body of educational work, the field of development education has its historical roots in both European academic institutions and NGOs.

      References Alexander, R. Top of page. Open issues Follow us. Newsletters OpenEdition Newsletter. Both Sweden and South Africa have declared the right to quality education for all without limitation, which is hard to achieve if they cannot provide schools with qualified teachers. When teachers do not have the necessary formal qualification for their tasks, feedback from school leaders and colleagues is of importance to ensure the quality of teaching.

      The teachers in the Nordic countries also differ significantly from other participating countries, as they report almost no opportunities to participate in mentoring activities. As the results point out that self-efficacy correlates with taking part in professional development on a regular basis e. Swedish teachers also reported having the lowest amount of job satisfaction. The importance of enhancing the amount of new teachers, as well as encouraging the active teachers to maintain working as teachers, has been recognized in several countries.

      However, what kind of support they get is crucial for if and what become possible to develop. In Sweden, preservice training of teachers has become an academic education at university level. One problem is the waste amount of descriptive and interpretative research presented in the general educational sciences courses [ 5 ], which are mandatory for all teacher students in Sweden. This is of course also important for teachers to study, but necessarily not at the expense of research on how to teach and learn in the classroom. The circumstance with a lack of applied educational research results, in combination with the extensive research results based on descriptive and interpretative research results, might be one of the reasons for a gap between theory and practice.

      The challenge of scientific-based teaching has to be elaborated further, to deepen the understanding of the difficulties. As mentioned above, the results from a national Swedish review of teacher education show that a completely dominant genre of research, which is a part of teacher education, is interpretative research, especially research from a sociocultural perspective [ 5 ].

      The research that prospective teachers face therefore mainly focus on describing and interpreting the specific and does not aim to point to general patterns or results of classroom learning. The theoretical discussions become abstract, and the preservice students have difficulties transforming the approaches to their professional work as teachers. They feel the results are of little or no meaning for their classroom activities.

      The results do not provide the students with knowledge of how to predict or act in the classroom. In fact, the opposite is desirable to avoid being understood as normative. The gap between theory and practice might be explained as a gap between the perspectives of research provided in relation to the goals of the vocational education for teachers.

      What is relevant to educational theories, included in the program, is determined by the teacher educators. On the other hand, if the teacher educator does not have a legitimate power base, the associated theories are dismissed. It can also be used to make teacher educators without classroom experience, or old experiences, able to understand what theoretical approaches might be important introducing for the students. Further on, it can be used to apply the theoretical assumptions on, showing the students in what way theoretical perspectives can be as glasses put on to see situations from new perspectives and analyze classroom activities based on theoretical assumptions.

      The supervising in-service teachers have a great impact on how the students develop their skills, as they are mentors during the entire education. In mentoring discussions, emotional support and task assistance seem to be considered as most important feedback by the students [ 9 ]. Theoretical reflections on classroom practice during preservice teacher training are rarely studied. Furthermore, studies have shown that preservice teachers value practice over theory when they enter the school contexts [ 11 ]. Findings also show how developing classroom management skills not always are trained to a desirable extent during teacher education [ 12 ].

      The preservice teachers are to a great extent taking courses and discussing research at a very abstract level, difficult for them to base their work as teachers on. Differences in focus of teaching, based on theoretical assumptions of what is the aim of education, have on impact of what affordances the teacher educators offer their students.

      While mainland teachers have a strong focus on teaching and learning, Hong Kong teachers focused more on reducing social problems in the classroom than knowledge development. To discern different approaches of what teaching and learning can be, requires a variation of theories presented and in what way they can be used as glasses to capture and explain patterns of classroom management. One difficulty is the lack of continuous in-service training for teachers at school, which results in limited possibilities to discuss the theoretical assumptions with supervising teachers at school. In the Swedish teacher education, the internship period is examined by teacher educators from the university.

      One of the national goals is to analyze classroom situations based on theoretical assumptions, as teaching should be based both on scientific and empirical grounds. Performance-based assessments are performed at the end of each vocational training period, managed by the teacher educators. In this study, trialogue oral examinations, with teacher trainers from university, the mentoring teachers at the school, and the student are analyzed.

      The case study is based on a mixed-methodology approach [ 18 ]. The complete data collected consist of open-ended questionnaire answered by 33 teacher trainers from one faculty, questionnaire with closed questions answered by 27 teacher trainers from, and 5 recorded performance-based oral assessments, with preservice teachers, teacher trainers from the university, and the mentoring teachers at school.

      After completion of the course, the student should be able to reflect on his teacher role and professional development with relevant links to the theoretical studies. The questionnaire with close-ended questions was compiled and analyzed quantitatively, while the other questionnaire was analyzed qualitatively. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed qualitatively as well as quantitatively. The durations of the oral assessment had a range between The teacher student was the one who chaired the meeting, as a result of a framework that regulates how the meeting shall be implemented.

      By that, the students took a leading role in the discussions.

      Towards a more equal, inclusive higher education

      The supervising school teacher was in all cases the person who had least talktime at the meetings. The qualitative analysis of the oral assessment shows a prominent trait regarding challenges connecting theory and practice. Students explain how difficult they find it to relate what they study at the university with what they do at their school placement. The dichotomy between theory and practice is expressed:. TE: You have a very good connection to the theories and then get it together with ….

      Lack of Qualified Teachers: A Global Challenge for Future Knowledge Development

      TE: But it should be visualized in practice and the big problem usually is that in practice you have practice and on the other hand you have the theory and you do not get these two parts together. TE: It is often actually at the expense of the theory, but here it might have slipped over. S: Yes, exactly. Instead, the theoretical frameworks seem to hinder the student, and if the theories mainly are based on a methodological approach with observations and interpretations, theory can become an obstacle. You have to be here and now, acting and responding to the students. The difficulties for students to understand how theoretical studies can contribute to their classroom activities were confirmed by the results from the open-ended questionnaire, where the teacher trainers at university describe the difficulties for students to reflect upon their teaching from a theoretical perspective.

      Finally, the result of the close-ended questionnaire shows that teacher trainers estimate that the mentoring teachers at school do not have sufficient knowledge of theoretical perspectives of relevance for their occupational training 2. As the supervising in-service teacher has a prominent role as models for the students, a model for knowledge exchange between university teachers and supervising teachers at school, offering them more opportunities to develop their theoretical knowledge, might enhance the theoretical understanding, as well as the use of classroom recordings used in the campus courses.

      To bridge the gap, it might not only be of interest to give in-service training to supervising school teachers but also reflect on what the campus-based courses for future teachers are offering. The modules are based on blended learning [ 20 ], as the students are provided by a web resource where they can find lectures from all authors of the course literature, as well as other learning resources, such as study material produced by the Swedish National Agency for Education or other trustworthy sources.

      Finally, video-recorded classroom situations are used in the final examination of the course to help students to understand how theoretical frameworks can be used as tools for teachers. The outline of the module is presented in Figure 1 , showing how one 6-week course 6 ETCS including 3 weeks for each course section is designed. During the course, the students have access to several different learning resources.

      First of all, the Learning Platform Canvas provides the students with course-specific texts, lectures, and learning researches. Besides that, a group of general capabilities are running like a track in all courses e. In all course sections, different form of work is introduced, such as the following: Individual reading of literature. Prerecorded lectures at web platform the authors of the literature, teacher educators, pod. Below, examples of the design are presented to give a view of how the parts of the module strive to enhance both theoretical and professional development preservice teachers by merging theory and practice during the course moments.

      Compare your own examples of situations, and in what way you would act differently today if you had the knowledge that you are expected to develop within the course. After this brief practice-based task, the students are supposed to watch the lecture of the author of the first course book. Whenever the students want to watch, the prerecorded lecture is uploaded to the web platform and can be watched several times, also together with supervising teachers at school. At this seminar, which is a teacher lead, you are going to discuss how knowledge about leadership, communication and conflicts in school has been developed in relation to the course objective, identify and describe various key concepts and perspectives in pedagogical leadership, social relations and conflict management.