Larner auth. Peterson, et al. Kotomin, et al. Allen Chronik des Mauerfalls: Die dramatischen Ereignisse um den 9. November , Rosenthal Work naked: eight essential principles for peak performance in the virtual workplace by Cynthia C. MacDonald The global cybercrime industry: economic, institutional and strategic perspectives by Nir Kshetri auth. Rao, E. Wakao, S. Kaguei How Does it Feel? Point of View in Translation.
Bergeron Computing for scientists and engineers: a workbook of analysis, numerics, and applications by William J. A Literary Interpretation, Vol. Bruce D. Baer Eds. Clark, C. Sirotnik Advanced topics in information technology standards and standardization research. So wird's gemacht. Dym, H. Mallin 'This flesh will rise again'': Retrieving early Christian faith in bodily resurrection by Douglass, J. Lieuwen, V. The Taming of the Shrew Shakespeare on the Double! Siegel eds. Angular momentum: An illustrated guide to rotational symmetries for physical systems by William J.
Pathways to the Present: U. Corazza Specific diagnosis : a study of disease with special reference to the administration of remedies by by John M. Volume 1 - crises monetaires d'hier et d'aujourd'hui. DiIulio Jr. Neal Stewart Jr. Drug interactions: protecting yourself from dangerous drug, medication, and food combinations by Melanie Apel Gordon The concrete tetrahedron.
Symbolic sums, recurrence equations, generating functions by Kauers M. C to A. Walter auth. Kaufmann Industrial Process Scale-up. Critical exponents for semilinear equations of mixed elliptic-hyperbolic and degenerate types by Lupo D. Multiplicity of nontrivial solutions for an asymptotically linear nonlocal Tricomi problem by Lupo D.
Christian W. Dawson by Christian W. Dawson Seminaire de Probabilites. Universite de Strasbourg, Novembre - Fevrier by A. Dold, B. Chu auth. Juvenal Merriell Symmetry breaking results for problems with exponential growth in the unit disk by Secchi S. Leadership abroad begins at home: U.
Ramirez Jr. Dwaalwegen in de geneeskunde: Over alternatieve geneeswijzen, modeziekten en kwakzalverij by Cees N. El Tom Eds. Tassi Elektrotechnik fur Ingenieure - Formelsammlung: Elektrotechnik kompakt, 3. Auflage by Wilfried Wei? Spyns M. Moens Selected essays: Translated, and with introduction and notes by Donald M. Covington by Harold A. Gee, V. Real Freedom for All: What if anything can justify capitalism? Star Wars. Supplementum, by Gareth L. Schmeling Mathematik und Plausibles Schliessen: Band 1. Induktion und Analogie in der Mathematik by Georg Polya auth.
Instructor Solutions Manual 1,2, and 3 by Douglas C. Dahms, ed. Ball The hermetic logos. Gurgel Pereira Generalized symplectic geometries and the index of families of elliptic problems by Liviu I. Anelidos by Antonio R. Jenkins; M. Fenlon Jr. Woodward by Suzanne W. Ferguson War in the Persian Gulf.
Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. August - March by Richard W. Cox auth. Sakio, T. Auflage Springer-Lehrbuch by Christoph G. Grieco The Life and Afterlife of St. Fujita, M. William Michaels Shakespeare on the Double! Costerus New Series by Lene M. Silvi, P. May, K. Mechanics of discrete and continuous systems by Petre P. Douglas Kinghorn Corporations are not people: why they have more rights than you do and what you can do about it by Jeffrey D. Warwick, D. Dhillon Ph.
Wise ed. Marin, A. Jose M. Cronk Troubled Partnership: U. A branch-and-bound algorithm for the resource-constrained project scheduling problem by Dorndorf U. Wolfsohn Greek altars of the northeastern Peloponnese, c. Dahlgaard Eds. Political Realism and the Crisis of World Politics. Samuelson Collective action and exchange: a game-theoretic approach to contemporary political economy by William D.
The results indicated that Myricaria could be divided into four phylogenetic clades, which correspond to four sections within the genus, of them two are newly described in this paper. The crown age of Myricaria was dated to early Miocene ca. The Himalayas were also shown as the center of origin for Myricaria from the optimization of ancestral distribution. Prebiological evolution and the physics of the origin of life. The basic tenet of the heterotrophic theory of the origin of life is that the maintenance and reproduction of the first living systems depended primarily on prebiotically synthesized organic molecules.
It is unlikely that any single mechanism can account for the wide range of organic compounds that may have accumulated on the primitive Earth, suggesting that the prebiotic soup was formed by contributions from endogenous syntheses in reducing environments, metal sulphide-mediated synthesis in deep-sea vents, and exogenous sources such as comets, meteorites and interplanetary dust. The wide range of experimental conditions under which amino acids and nucleobases can be synthesized suggests that the abiotic syntheses of these monomers did not take place under a narrow range defined by highly selective reaction conditions, but rather under a wide variety of settings.
The robustness of this type of chemistry is supported by the occurrence of most of these biochemical compounds in the Murchison meteorite. These results lend strong credence to the hypothesis that the emergence of life was the outcome of a long, but not necessarily slow, evolutionary processes. The origin of life may be best understood in terms of the dynamics and evolution of sets of chemical replicating entities.
Whether such entities were enclosed within membranes is not yet clear, but given the prebiotic availability of amphiphilic compounds this may have well been the case. This scheme is not at odds with the theoretical models of self-organized emerging systems, but what is known of biology suggest that the essential traits of living systems could have not emerged in the absence of genetic material able to store, express and, upon replication, transmit to its progeny information capable of undergoing evolutionary change.
How such genetic polymer first evolved is a central issue in origin -of-life studies. Scientific papers are presented in the following areas: cosmic evolution of biogenic compounds, prebiotic evolution planetary and molecular , early evolution of life biological and geochemical , evolution of advanced life, solar system exploration, and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence SETI. Kouveliotou, C. By studying the chemical composition and properties of clusters of galaxies we can extend the range of exploration to lower redshifts z approx.
The Cryogenic Imaging Spectrometer, with a spectral resolution of 2. The payload is complemented by a Burst InfraRed Telescope to enable onboard red-shift determination of GRBs hence securing proper follow up of high-z bursts. The origins and evolution of "controlled" drug delivery systems. This paper describes the earliest days when the "controlled drug delivery" CDD field began, the pioneers who launched this exciting and important field, and the key people who came after them. It traces the evolution of the field from its origins in the s to a the s and s, when numerous macroscopic "controlled" drug delivery DD devices and implants were designed for delivery as mucosal inserts e.
The nanoscopic era began with systems proposed in the s, that were first used in the clinic in the s, and which came of age in the s, and which are presently evolving into many exciting and clinically successful products in the s. Most of these have succeeded because of the emergence of three key technologies: 1 PEGylation, 2 active targeting to specific cells by ligands conjugated to the DDS, or passive targeting to solid tumors via the EPR effect.
The author has been personally involved in the origins and evolution of this field for the past 38 years see below , and this review includes information that was provided to him by many researchers in this field about the history of various developments. Thus, this paper is based on his own personal involvements in the CDD field, along with many historical anecdotes provided by the key pioneers and researchers in the field. Because of the huge literature of scientific papers on CDD systems, this article attempts to limit examples to those that have been approved for clinical use, or are currently in clinical trials.
The evolution of ultraconserved elements with different phylogenetic origins. Background: Ultraconserved elements of DNA have been identified in vertebrate and invertebrate genomes. These elements have been found to have diverse functions, including enhancer activities in developmental processes. The evolutionary origins and functional roles of these elements in cellular systems, however, have not yet been determined. Results: Here, we identified a wide range of ultraconserved elements common to distant species, from primitive aquatic organisms to terrestrial species with complicated body systems, including some novel elements conserved in fruit fly and human.
In addition to a well-known association with developmental genes, these DNA elements have a strong association with genes implicated in essential cell functions, such as epigenetic regulation, apoptosis, detoxification, innate immunity, and sensory reception. Interestingly, we observed that ultraconserved elements clustered by sequence similarity. Furthermore, species composition and flanking genes of clusters showed lineage-specific patterns. Ultraconserved elements are highly enriched with binding sites to developmental transcription factors regardless of how they cluster.
Conclusion: We identified large numbers of ultraconserved elements across distant species. Specific classes of these conserved elements seem to have been generated before the divergence of taxa and fixed during the process of evolution. Our findings indicate that these ultraconserved elements are not the exclusive property of higher modern eukaryotes, but rather transmitted from their metazoan ancestors. Language competence and symbolism can be continuously bridged from chimpanzee to man.
Emotions, intercommunity aggression, body language, gestures, facial expressions, and vocalization of intonations seem to parallel between the sister taxa Homo and Pan. The shared suite of traits between Pan and Homo genus demonstrated in this article integrates old and new information on human—chimpanzee evolution , bilateral informational and cross-cultural exchange, promoting the urgent need for Pan cultures in the wild to be protected, as they are part of the cultural heritage of mankind.
Unfolding bonobo and chimpanzee biology highlights our common genetic and cultural evolutionary origins. The origin and evolution of the term "clone". In biology, the term "clone" is most widely used to designate genetically identical cells or organisms that are asexually descended from a common progenitor. The concept of clonality in hematology-oncology has received much attention in recent years, as the advent of next-generation sequencing platforms has provided new tools for detection of clonal populations in patients, and experiments on primary cells have provided fascinating new insights into the clonal architecture of human malignancies.
The term "clone" is used more loosely by the general public to mean any close or identical copy. Cloning of humans has been a staple of science fiction films and dystopian novels since Aldous Huxley's Brave New World was published in Here I trace the origin and evolution of the word clone, from its first use as an agricultural and botanical term in , to its widespread adoption in biology, adaptation by artists, and contemporary use in hematology-oncology.
Origins and evolution of viruses of eukaryotes: The ultimate modularity. Viruses and other selfish genetic elements are dominant entities in the biosphere, with respect to both physical abundance and genetic diversity. Various selfish elements parasitize on all cellular life forms.
The relative abundances of different classes of viruses are dramatically different between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In prokaryotes, the great majority of viruses possess double-stranded ds DNA genomes, with a substantial minority of single-stranded ss DNA viruses and only limited presence of RNA viruses. Phylogenomic analysis yields tangible clues for the origins of major classes of eukaryotic viruses and in particular their likely roots in prokaryotes. Specifically, the ancestral genome of positive-strand RNA viruses of eukaryotes might have been assembled de novo from genes derived from prokaryotic retroelements and bacteria although a primordial origin of this class of viruses cannot be ruled out.
The eukaryotic ssDNA viruses apparently evolved via a fusion of genes from prokaryotic rolling circle-replicating plasmids and positive-strand RNA viruses. Different families of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses appear to have originated from specific groups of bacteriophages on at least two independent occasions. Strikingly, evolution of all classes of eukaryotic viruses appears to have involved fusion between structural and replicative gene modules derived from different sources. Koonin, Eugene V.
Origin and evolution of the atmospheres of early Venus, Earth and Mars. Lammer, Helmut; Zerkle, Aubrey L. We review the origin and evolution of the atmospheres of Earth, Venus and Mars from the time when their accreting bodies were released from the protoplanetary disk a few million years after the origin of the Sun. The differences between these two scenarios are explored by investigating non-radiogenic atmospheric noble gas isotope anomalies observed on the three terrestrial planets.
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The role of the young Sun's more efficient EUV radiation and of the plasma environment into the escape of early atmospheres is also addressed. We discuss the catastrophic outgassing of volatiles and the formation and cooling of steam atmospheres after the solidification of magma oceans and we describe the geochemical evidence for additional delivery of volatile-rich chondritic materials during the main stages of terrestrial planet formation.
The evolution scenario of early Earth is then compared with the atmospheric evolution of planets where no active plate tectonics emerged like on Venus and Mars. This review concludes with a discussion on the implications of understanding Earth's geophysical and related atmospheric evolution in relation. Chiar, J. Ricca 1. Many materials have been considered for the carrier of the hydrocarbon absorption bands observed in the diffuse interstellar medium ISM.
In order to refine the model for ISM hydrocarbon grains, we analyze the observed aromatic 3. The fractional abundance of these components allows us to place the Galactic diffuse ISM hydrocarbons on a ternary phase diagram. We have placed the results of our analysis within the context of the evolution of carbon dust in the ISM.
We argue that interstellar carbon dust consists of a large core of aromatic carbon surrounded by a thin mantle of hydrogenated amorphous carbon a-C:H , a structure that is a natural consequence of the processing of stardust grains in the ISM. Observationally, sp 2 bonds can be measured in astronomical spectra using the 6. On the origin and evolution of Antarctic Peracarida Crustacea, Malacostraca.
Full Text Available The early separation of Gondwana and the subsequent isolation of Antarctica caused a long evolutionary history of its fauna. Both, long environmental stability over millions of years and habitat heterogeneity, due to an abundance of sessile suspension feeders on the continental shelf, favoured evolutionary processes of preadapted taxa, like for example the Peracarida. This taxon performs brood protection and this might be one of the most important reasons why it is very successful i.
The extinction of many decapod crustaceans in the Cenozoic might have allowed the Peracarida to find and use free ecological niches. Therefore the palaeogeographic, palaeoclimatologic, and palaeo-hydrographic changes since the Palaeocene at least since about 60 Ma ago and the evolutionary success of some peracarid taxa e. Amphipoda, Isopoda led to the evolution of many endemic species in the Antarctic. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the Antarctic Tanaidacea, Sieg demonstrated that the tanaid fauna of the Antarctic is mainly represented by phylogenetically younger taxa, and data from other crustacean taxa led Sieg to conclude that the recent Antarctic crustacean fauna must be comparatively young.
His arguments are scrutinized on the basis of more recent data on the phylogeny and biodiversity of crustacean taxa, namely the Ostracoda, Decapoda, Mysidacea, Cumacea, Amphipoda, and Isopoda. This analysis demonstrates that the origin of the Antarctic fauna probably has different roots: an adaptive radiation of descendants from old Gondwanian ancestors was hypothesized for the isopod families Serolidae and Arcturidae, an evolution and radiation of phylogenetically old taxa in Antarctica could also be shown for the Ostracoda and the amphipod family Iphimediidae.
A recolonization via the Scotia Arc appears possible for some species, though it is. Cyril Ponnamperuma Memorial. Trieste conference on chemical evolution , 4: Physics of the origin and evolution of life. The abstracts have been indexed individually. Phase avalanches in near-adiabatic evolutions. In the course of slow, nearly adiabatic motion of a system, relative changes in the slowness can cause abrupt and high magnitude phase changes, '' phase avalanches,'' superimposed on the ordinary geometric phases. Motion on a nonmaximal circle on the Poincare-sphere suppresses the effect.
A spectroscopic transition experiment can independently verify the phase -avalanche magnitudes. Prebiological evolution and the metabolic origins of life. The chemoton model of cells posits three subsystems: metabolism, compartmentalization, and information. A specific model for the prebiological evolution of a reproducing system with rudimentary versions of these three interdependent subsystems is presented.
This is based on the initial emergence and reproduction of autocatalytic networks in hydrothermal microcompartments containing iron sulfide. The driving force for life was catalysis of the dissipation of the intrinsic redox gradient of the planet. The codependence of life on iron and phosphate provides chemical constraints on the ordering of prebiological evolution. The initial protometabolism was based on positive feedback loops associated with in situ carbon fixation in which the initial protometabolites modified the catalytic capacity and mobility of metal-based catalysts, especially iron-sulfur centers.
A number of selection mechanisms, including catalytic efficiency and specificity, hydrolytic stability, and selective solubilization, are proposed as key determinants for autocatalytic reproduction exploited in protometabolic evolution. This evolutionary process led from autocatalytic networks within preexisting compartments to discrete, reproducing, mobile vesicular protocells with the capacity to use soluble sugar phosphates and hence the opportunity to develop nucleic acids. Fidelity of information transfer in the reproduction of these increasingly complex autocatalytic networks is a key selection pressure in prebiological evolution that eventually leads to the selection of nucleic acids as a digital information subsystem and hence the emergence of fully functional chemotons capable of Darwinian evolution.
Geometric origin of dynamically induced freezing of quantum evolution. The phenomenon of dynamical, field-induced freezing of quantum evolution is discussed. It occurs when a time-dependent state is dynamically driven in such a way that the evolution of the corresponding wave function is effectively localized within a small region in the projective Hilbert space. As a consequence, the dynamics of the system is frozen and the expectation values of all physical observables hardly change with time.
Necessary and sufficient conditions for inducing dynamical freezing are inferred from a general analysis of the geometry of quantum evolution. The relevance of the dynamical freezing for a sustainable in time, dynamical control is discussed and exemplified by a study of the coherent control of the kicked rotor motion.
Origin and evolution of SINEs in eukaryotic genomes. Short interspersed elements SINEs are one of the two most prolific mobile genomic elements in most of the higher eukaryotes. Although their biology is still not thoroughly understood, unusual life cycle of these simple elements amplified as genomic parasites makes their evolution unique in many ways. In contrast to most genetic elements including other transposons, SINEs emerged de novo many times in evolution from available molecules for example, tRNA. The involvement of reverse transcription in their amplification cycle, huge number of genomic copies and modular structure allow variation mechanisms in SINEs uncommon or rare in other genetic elements module exchange between SINE families, dimerization, and so on.
Overall, SINE evolution includes their emergence, progressive optimization and counteraction to the cell's defense against mobile genetic elements. Phase characteristics of rheograms. Original classification of phase -related changes of rheos. Full Text Available The phase characteristics of a rheogram are described in literature in general only.
The existing theory of impedance rheography is based on an analysis of the form of rheogram envelopes, but not on the phase -related processes and their interpretation according to the applicable laws of physics. The aim of the present paper is to describe the phase -related characteristics of a rheogram of the ascending aorta. The method of the heart cycle phase analysis has been used for this purpose. By synchronizing an ECG of the aorta and a rheogram, an analysis of specific changes in the aorta blood filling in each phase is provided. As a result, the phase changes of a rheogram associated with the ECG phase structure are described and tabulated for first time.
The author hereof offers his own original classification of the phase -related changes of rheograms. The evolutionary origins. Referred to as doi moi, this "renovation" has produced dramatic changes in In this book, Vietnamese scholars describe the origins and impacts of these changes. Origin , development, and evolution of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Full Text Available Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing EMDR has led to a great number of studies since its appearance in The aim of this article is to describe EMDR development and evolution to the present day.
After revising the resulting articles, those that because of their relevance explained best the development and evolution of the technique were chosen and shaped into a lifeline graphically representing the history of EMDR. Despite the fact that during the first years the focus of research was on the validation of the technique for post-traumatic disorder PTSD, it was soon applied to other areas.
Up to date, in spite of the effectiveness of EMDR for the treatment of PTSD that has been proven, many different explanatory hypotheses are still up for discussion. Evolution : Tracing the origins of centrioles, cilia, and flagella. CBBs, cilia, and flagella are ancestral structures; they are present in all major eukaryotic groups. Despite the conservation of their core structure, there is variability in their architecture, function, and biogenesis.
Recent genomic and functional studies have provided insight into the evolution of the structure and function of these organelles. Recent criticisms of Neo-Darwinism are considered and disputed within the setting of recent advances in chemical physics. A related query, viz. The origin of nitrogen and the chemical evolution of spiral galaxies. This is an electronic version of an article published in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Diaz, A.
Astronomy and Astrophysics : From atoms to steps: The microscopic origins of crystal evolution. The Burton-Cabrera-Frank BCF theory of crystal growth has been successful in describing a wide range of phenomena in surface physics. Typical crystal surfaces are slightly misoriented with respect to a facet plane; thus, the BCF theory views such systems as composed of staircase-like structures of steps separating terraces.
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Adsorbed atoms adatoms , which are represented by a continuous density, diffuse on terraces, and steps move by absorbing or emitting these adatoms. Here we shed light on the microscopic origins of the BCF theory by deriving a simple, one-dimensional 1D version of the theory from an atomistic, kinetic restricted solid-on-solid KRSOS model without external material deposition. We define the time-dependent adatom density and step position as appropriate ensemble averages in the KRSOS model, thereby exposing the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics origins of the BCF theory.
Our analysis reveals that the BCF theory is valid in a low adatom-density regime, much in the same way that an ideal gas approximation applies to dilute gasses. We find conditions under which the surface remains in a low-density regime and discuss the microscopic origin of corrections to the BCF model. The evolution of milk secretion and its ancient origins. Lactation represents an important element of the life history strategies of all mammals, whether monotreme, marsupial, or eutherian.
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Milk originated as a glandular skin secretion in synapsids the lineage ancestral to mammals , perhaps as early as the Pennsylvanian period, that is, approximately million years ago mya. Early synapsids laid eggs with parchment-like shells intolerant of desiccation and apparently dependent on glandular skin secretions for moisture.
Mammary glands probably evolved from apocrine-like glands that combined multiple modes of secretion and developed in association with hair follicles. Comparative analyses of the evolutionary origin of milk constituents support a scenario in which these secretions evolved into a nutrient-rich milk long before mammals arose. A variety of antimicrobial and secretory constituents were co-opted into novel roles related to nutrition of the young. Secretory calcium-binding phosphoproteins may originally have had a role in calcium delivery to eggs; however, by evolving into large, complex casein micelles, they took on an important role in transport of amino acids, calcium and phosphorus.
Several proteins involved in immunity, including an ancestral butyrophilin and xanthine oxidoreductase, were incorporated into a novel membrane-bound lipid droplet the milk fat globule that became a primary mode of energy transfer. By the late. The universal relation of galactic chemical evolution : the origin of the mass-metallicity relation.
Zahid, H. Jabran; Dima, Gabriel I. At stellar masses higher than the characteristic turnover mass, the mass-metallicity relation flattens as metallicities begin to saturate. We show that the redshift evolution of the mass-metallicity relation depends only on the evolution of the characteristic turnover mass. The relationship between metallicity and the stellar mass normalized to the characteristic turnover mass is independent of redshift. We find that the redshift-independent slope of the mass-metallicity relation is set by the slope of the relationship between gas mass and stellar mass.
The turnover in the mass-metallicity relation occurs when the gas- phase oxygen abundance is high enough that the amount of oxygen locked up in low-mass stars is an appreciable fraction of the amount of oxygen produced by massive stars. The characteristic turnover mass is the stellar mass, where the stellar-to-gas mass ratio is unity.
Numerical modeling suggests that the relationship between metallicity and the stellar-to-gas mass ratio is a redshift-independent, universal relationship followed by all galaxies as they evolve. The mass-metallicity relation originates from this more fundamental universal relationship between metallicity and the stellar-to-gas mass ratio.
We test the validity of this universal metallicity relation in local galaxies where stellar mass, metallicity, and gas mass measurements are available. The data are consistent with a universal metallicity relation. Evolution of bilaterian central nervous systems: a single origin? The question of whether the ancestral bilaterian had a central nervous system CNS or a diffuse ectodermal nervous system has been hotly debated. Considerable evidence supports the theory that a CNS evolved just once. However, an alternative view proposes that the chordate CNS evolved from the ectodermal nerve net of a hemichordate-like ancestral deuterostome, implying independent evolution of the CNS in chordates and protostomes.
The present review analyzes the evidence for and against these theories. The bulk of the evidence indicates that a CNS evolved just once — in the ancestral bilaterian. Importantly, in both protostomes and deuterostomes, the CNS represents a portion of a generally neurogenic ectoderm that is internalized and receives and integrates inputs from sensory cells in the remainder of the ectoderm.
The roadmap outlines a program to address the questions: What powered the Big Bang? What happens close to a Black Hole? What is Dark Energy? How did the infant universe grow into the galaxies, stars and planets, and set the stage for life?
The roadmap builds upon the currently operating and successful missions such as HST, Chandra and Spitzer. Origin and evolution of the deep thermochemical structure beneath Eurasia. A unique structure in the Earth's lowermost mantle, the Perm Anomaly, was recently identified beneath Eurasia. This challenges the current understanding of the evolution of the plate-mantle system in which plumes rise from the edges of the two LLSVPs, spatially fixed in time.
New models of mantle flow over the last million years reproduce the present-day structure of the lower mantle, and show a Perm-like anomaly. We hypothesize that the mobile Perm Anomaly could be linked to the Emeishan volcanics, in contrast to the previously proposed Siberian Traps. The origin and evolution of terrestrial and Martian rock labyrinths. The morphological characteristics and evolutionary development of rock labyrinths on Earth in sandstone, volcanics, and carbonates are compared with those on Mars.
On Earth rock labyrinths originate as parallel, an echelon, or intersecting narrow grabens, or develop where fault and joint networks are selectively eroded. Labyrinths frequently contain both downfaulted and erosional elements. Closed labyrinths contain depressions; open labyrinths do not, they are simple part of a fluvial network generally of low order. As closed labyrinths made up of intersecting grabens or made up of connected erosional depressions are extremely common on Mars, the research focussed on an understanding of these labyrinth types.
Martian labyrinths were investigated using Viking orbiter images. In addition, research was undertaken on apparent thermokarst features in Lunae Planum and Chryse Planitia where closed depressions are numerous and resemble atlas topography. Evolution of disk galaxies and the origin of SO galaxies. We reconsider the relation between spiral and SO galaxies in the light of recent data on the colors and morphology of disk systems, and on the content of clusters at different redshifts.
Star formation will strongly deplete the gas in most spirals in a fraction of the Hubble time, so we suggest that the gas in spirals has been replenished by infall from residual envelopes, probably including gas-rich companions and tidal debris. SO's may then be disk systems that lost their gas-rich envelopes at an early stage and consumed their remaining gas by star formation.
This picture is consistent with the color of SO's if most of their star formation stopped at least a few gigayears ago, and it is consistent with their small disk-to-bulge ratios relative to spirals, since this is a direct result of the early truncation of star formation. Numerical simulations show that the gas envelopes of disk galaxies in clusters are largely stripped away when the clusters collapse, but star formation can continue in the spirals for several gigayears while their remaining disk gas is consumed.
These results can explain the blue galaxies observed by Butcher and Oemler in two condensed clusters at zapprox. A rapid evolution of the galaxy content of condensed clusters is predicted at moderate redshifts, ranging from a large fraction of blue galaxies at zapprox. Goebel, J. Origin and evolution of dengue virus type 3 in Brazil.
The incidence of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in Brazil experienced a significant increase since the emergence of dengue virus type-3 DENV-3 at the early s. Despite the major public health concerns, there have been very few studies of the molecular epidemiology and time-scale of this DENV lineage in Brazil. Our phylogenetic analysis reveals that there have been at least four introductions of the DENV-3 genotype III in Brazil, as signified by the presence of four phylogenetically distinct lineages.
These findings show that importation of DENV-3 lineages from the Caribbean islands into Brazil seems to be relatively frequent. Our study further suggests that the North and Southeast Brazilian regions were the most important hubs of introduction and spread of DENV-3 lineages and deserve an intense epidemiological surveillance. Full Text Available The incidence of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in Brazil experienced a significant increase since the emergence of dengue virus type-3 DENV-3 at the early s.
Evolution from successive phase transitions to "morphotropic phase boundary" in BaTiO3-based ferroelectrics. Obtaining superior physical properties for ferroic materials by manipulating the phase transitions is a key concern in solid state physics. Here, we investigated the dielectric permittivity, piezoelectric coefficient d33, storage modulus, and crystal symmetry of 1-x Ba Ti0. Furthermore, we analysed with a Landau-type theoretical model to show that the high field-sensitive response dielectric permittivity originates from a small polarization anisotropy and low energy barrier at the quadruple point.
Together, the intermediate orthorhombic phase regime and the tetragonal-orthorhombic and orthorhombic-rhombohedral phase boundaries constitute the MPB. Our work not only reconciles the arguments regarding whether the structural state around the MPB corresponds to a single- phase regime or a multiple- phase -coexistence regime but also suggests an effective method to design high-performance functional ferroic materials by tailoring the successive phase transitions.
Nonlinear evolution inclusions arising from phase change models. Genome increase as a clock for the origin and evolution of life. Full Text Available Abstract Background The size of non-redundant functional genome can be an indicator of biological complexity of living organisms. Several positive feedback mechanisms including gene cooperation and duplication with subsequent specialization may result in the exponential growth of biological complexity in macro- evolution.
Results I propose a hypothesis that biological complexity increased exponentially during evolution. Regression of the logarithm of functional non-redundant genome size versus time of origin in major groups of organisms showed a 7. A strong version of the exponential hypothesis is that the rate of complexity increase in early pre-prokaryotic evolution of life was at most the same or even slower than observed in the evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Conclusion The increase of functional non-redundant genome size in macro- evolution was consistent with the exponential hypothesis.
If the strong exponential hypothesis is true, then the origin of life should be dated 10 billion years ago. Thus, the possibility of panspermia as a source of life on earth should be discussed on equal basis with alternative hypotheses of de-novo life origin. Panspermia may be proven if bacteria similar to terrestrial ones are found on other planets or satellites in the solar system. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Eugene V. Koonin, Chris Adami and Arcady Mushegian. Phase -space formalism: Operational calculus and solution of evolution equations in phase -space. Phase -space formulation of physical problems offers conceptual and practical advantages.
A class of evolution type equations, describing the time behaviour of a physical system, using an operational formalism useful to handle time ordering problems has been described. The methods proposed generalize the algebraic ordering techniques developed to deal with the ordinary Schroedinger equation, and how they are taylored suited to treat evolution problems both in classical and quantum dynamics has been studied. Field evidence demonstrates that piping is, at present, the most important erosive process in the region, generating significant collapse and surface lowering.
This work hypothesises that once an early, fluvially- originated palustrine area had developed, the progressive lowering of the regional water table linked to regional fluvial incision favoured the establishment of a hydrological gradient high enough to trigger piping processes within the claystones and siltstones underlying the original palustrine area. All the evidence supporting a piping-related origin for this lake, together with examples of lakes generated by similar processes in different contexts, is used to propose a new genetic type of.
First steps in eukaryogenesis: Physical phenomena in the origin and evolution of chromosome structure. Our present understanding of the origin and evolution of chromosomes differs considerably from current understanding of the origin and evolution of the cell itself. Chromosome origins have been less prominent in research, as the emphasis has not shifted so far appreciably from the phenomenon of primeval nucleic acid encapsulation to that of the origin of gene organization, expression, and regulation. In this work we discuss some reasons why preliminary steps in this direction are being taken.
We have been led to examine properties that have contributed to raise the ancestral prokaryotic programmes to a level where we can appreciate in eukaryotes a clear departure from earlier themes in the evolution of the cell from the last common ancestor. We shift our point of view from evolution of cell morphology to the point of view of the genes. In particular, we focus attention on possible physical bases for the way transmission of information has evolved in eukaryotes, namely, the inactivation of whole chromosomes.
The special case of inactivation of the X chromosome in mammals is discussed, paying particular attention to the physical process of the spread of X inactivation in monotremes platypus and echidna. When experimental data is unavailable some theoretical analysis is possible based on the idea that in certain cases collective phenomena in genetics, rather than chemical detail, are better correlates of complex chemical processes.
Abstract only. In this booklet the content and implications of the First Amendment are analyzed. Historical origins of free speech from ancient Greece to England before the discovery of America, free speech in colonial America, and the Bill of Rights and its meaning for free speech are outlined. The evolution of the First Amendment is described, and the…. We have been led to examine properties that have contributed to raise the ancestral prokaryotic programmes to a level where we can appreciate in eukaryotes a clear departure from earlier themes in the evolution of cell from the last common ancestor.
In particular we focus attention on possible physical bases for the way transmission of information has evolved in eukaryotes, namely, the inactivation of whole chromosomes. The special case of the inactivation of the X chromosome in mammals is discussed, paying particular attention to the physical process of the spread of X inactivation in monotremes platypus and echidna.
Chemical evolution and the origin of life: cumulative keyword subject index This cumulative subject index encompasses the subject indexes of the bibliographies on Chemical Evolution and the Origin of Life that were first published in and have continued through publication of the bibliography supplement.
Early bibliographies focused on experimental and theoretical material dealing directly with the concepts of chemical evolution and the origin of life, excluding the broader areas of exobiology, biological evolution , and geochemistry. In recent years, these broader subject areas have also been incorporated as they appear in literature searches relating to chemical evolution and the origin of life, although direct attempts have not been made to compile all of the citations in these broad areas.
The keyword subject indexes have also undergone an analogous change in scope. Compilers of earlier bibliographies used the most specific term available in producing the subject index. Compilers of recent bibliographies have used a number of broad terms relating to the overall subject content of each citation and specific terms where appropriate. The subject indexes of these 17 bibliographies have, in general, been cumulatively compiled exactly as they originally appeared. However, some changes have been made in an attempt to correct errors, combine terms, and provide more meaningful terms.
Complex quantum network geometries: Evolution and phase transitions. Networks are topological and geometric structures used to describe systems as different as the Internet, the brain, or the quantum structure of space-time. Here we define complex quantum network geometries, describing the underlying structure of growing simplicial 2-complexes, i. These networks are geometric networks with energies of the links that grow according to a nonequilibrium dynamics. The evolution in time of the geometric networks is a classical evolution describing a given path of a path integral defining the evolution of quantum network states.
The quantum network states are characterized by quantum occupation numbers that can be mapped, respectively, to the nodes, links, and triangles incident to each link of the network. We call the geometric networks describing the evolution of quantum network states the quantum geometric networks.
The quantum geometric networks have many properties common to complex networks, including small-world property, high clustering coefficient, high modularity, and scale-free degree distribution. Moreover, they can be distinguished between the Fermi-Dirac network and the Bose-Einstein network obeying, respectively, the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics. We show that these networks can undergo structural phase transitions where the geometrical properties of the networks change drastically.
Finally, we comment on the relation between quantum complex network geometries, spin networks, and triangulations. A review of advances in paleoanthropology, comparative genetics, and evolutionary psychology]. In his main work, "On the origin of species", Darwin has refrained from discusion of the origin of man; be only mentioned that his theory would "throw light" on this problem.
This famous Darwin's phrase turned out to be one of the most succesful scientific predictions. In the present paper some of the most important recent adavnces in paleoanthroplogy, comparative genetics and evolutionary psychology are reviewed. These three disciplines currently contribute most to our knowledge of anthropogenesis. The review demonstrates that Darwin's ideas not only "threw light" on human origin and evolution ; they provided a comprehensive framework for a great variety of studies concerning different aspects of anthropogenesis.
Phase nucleation and evolution mechanisms in heterogeneous solids. Phase nucleation and evolution is a problem of critical importance in many applications. As the length scales are reduced, it becomes increasingly important to consider interfacial and micro-structural effects that can be safely ignored at larger length scales owing to randomness. The theory of phase nucleation has been addressed usually by the classical nucleation theory, which was originally derived for single component fluid systems, after making an assumption of equilibrium.
The criterion has not been rigorously derived for solids, which are far from equilibrium due to dissipation by multiple physical drivers. In this thesis, a thermodynamically sound nucleation criterion is derived for systems with multiple interacting physical phenomena and multiple dissipating mechanisms. This is done, using the tools of continuum mechanics, by determining the change in free energy upon the introduction of a new nucleus into the system. The developed theory is demonstrated to be a generalization of the classical nucleation theory CNT.
The developed theory is then applied to the problem of electromigration driven void nucleation, a serious reliability concern for the microelectronics industry. The void grows and eventually severs the line making the chip nonfunctional. There are two classes of theories at present in the electromigration literature to address the problem of void nucleation, the vacancy supersaturation theory and the entropic dissipation theory, both of which are empirical and based on intuition developed from experimental observations.
When the developed theory was applied to the problem of electromigration, it was found to be consistent with the vacancy supersaturation theory, but provided the correct energetic quantity, the chemical potential, which has contribution from both the vacancy concentration as well as the hydrostatic stress. An experiment, consisting of electromigration tests on serpentine lines, was developed to validate the developed. The phase evolution during the carbothermic reduction process of Panzhihua ilmenite concentrate was investigated under argon atmosphere.
The phase transformation of the briquette reduced at different temperatures was investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The reduction degree of the ilmenite was increased by increasing the temperature. With the increase of reaction temperature and reaction time, TiC x O y phase would be reduced to TiC phase. Tempo and mode of performance evolution across multiple independent origins of adhesive toe pads in lizards.
Understanding macroevolutionary dynamics of trait evolution is an important endeavor in evolutionary biology. Ecological opportunity can liberate a trait as it diversifies through trait space, while genetic and selective constraints can limit diversification. While many studies have examined the dynamics of morphological traits, diverse morphological traits may yield the same or similar performance and as performance is often more proximately the target of selection, examining only morphology may give an incomplete understanding of evolutionary dynamics.
Here, we ask whether convergent evolution of pad-bearing lizards has followed similar evolutionary dynamics, or whether independent origins are accompanied by unique constraints and selective pressures over macroevolutionary time. We hypothesized that geckos and anoles each have unique evolutionary tempos and modes. Using performance data from 59 species, we modified Brownian motion BM and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck OU models to account for repeated origins estimated using Bayesian ancestral state reconstructions.
We discovered that adhesive performance in geckos evolved in a fashion consistent with Brownian motion with a trend, whereas anoles evolved in bounded performance space consistent with more constrained evolution an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model. Our results suggest that convergent phenotypes can have quite distinctive evolutionary patterns, likely as a result of idiosyncratic constraints or ecological opportunities.
Quantum dynamical time evolutions as stochastic flows on phase space. We are mainly interested in describing the time development of the Wigner functions by means of stochastic processes. In the second section we recall the main properties of the Wigner functions as well as those of their Fourier transform. In the next one we derive the evolution equation of these functions for a class of Hamiltonians and we give a probabilistic expression for the solution of these equations by means of a stochastic flow in phase space which reminds of the classical flows.
In the last section we remark that the previously defined flow can be extended to the bounded continuous functions on phase space and that this flow conserves the cone generated by the Wigner functions. Phase -space evolution of x-ray coherence in phase -sensitive imaging. X-ray coherence evolution in the imaging process plays a key role for x-ray phase -sensitive imaging. In this work we present a phase -space formulation for the phase -sensitive imaging. The theory is reformulated in terms of the cross-spectral density and associated Wigner distribution.
Gratitude and Beyond
The phase -space formulation enables an explicit and quantitative account of partial coherence effects on phase -sensitive imaging. The presented formulas for x-ray spectral density at the detector can be used for performing accurate phase retrieval and optimizing the phase -contrast visibility. The concept of phase -space shearing length derived from this phase -space formulation clarifies the spatial coherence requirement for phase -sensitive imaging with incoherent sources.
The theory has been applied to x-ray Talbot interferometric imaging as well. The peak coherence condition derived reveals new insights into three-grating-based Talbot-interferometric imaging and gratings-based x-ray dark-field imaging. Microscopic origin of black hole reentrant phase transitions. Understanding the microscopic behavior of the black hole ingredients has been one of the important challenges in black hole physics during the past decades.
In order to shed some light on the microscopic structure of black holes, in this paper, we explore a recently observed phenomenon for black holes namely reentrant phase transition, by employing the Ruppeiner geometry. Interestingly enough, we observe two properties for the phase behavior of small black holes that leads to reentrant phase transition. They are correlated and they are of the interaction type. For the range of pressure in which the system underlies reentrant phase transition, it transits from the large black holes phase to the small one which possesses higher correlation than the other ranges of pressures.
Indeed, for the usual case, the dominant interaction is repulsive whereas for the reentrant case we encounter an attractive interaction. We show that in the reentrant phase transition case, the small black holes behave like a bosonic gas whereas in the usual phase transition case, they behave like a quantum anyon gas. Phase -field modelling of microstructural evolution and properties. As one of the most powerful techniques in computational materials science, the diffuse-interface phase -field model has been widely employed for simulating various meso-scale microstructural evolution processes.
To achieve this goal; many factors involved in complicated real systems are investigated, many of which are often simplified or ignored in existing models, e. Efficient numerical techniques must be developed to solve those partial differential equations that are involved in modelling microstructural evolutions and properties.
In this thesis, different spectral methods were proposed for the time-dependent phase -field kinetic equations and diffusion equations. For solving the elastic equilibrium equation with the consideration of elastic inhomogeneity, a conjugate gradient method was utilized.
The numerical approaches developed were generally found to be more accurate and efficient than conventional approach such as finite difference method. A composition-dependent Cahn-Hilliard equation was solved by using a semi-implicit Fourier-spectral method. It was shown that the morphological evolutions in bulk-diffusion-controlled coarsening and interface-diffusion-controlled developed similar patterns and scaling behaviors.
For bulk-diffusion-controlled coarsening, a cubic growth law was obeyed in the scaling regime, whereas a fourth power growth law was observed for interface-diffusion-controlled coarsening. The characteristics of a microstructure under the influence of elastic energy depend on elastic properties such as elastic anisotropy, lattice mismatch, elastic inhomogeneity and. Evolution of social learning does not explain the origin of human cumulative culture.
Because culture requires transmission of information between individuals, thinking about the origin of culture has mainly focused on the genetic evolution of abilities for social learning. Current theory considers how social learning affects the adaptiveness of a single cultural trait, yet human culture consists of the accumulation of very many traits. Here we introduce a new modeling strategy that tracks the adaptive value of many cultural traits, showing that genetic evolution favors only limited social learning owing to the accumulation of maladaptive as well as adaptive culture.
We further show that culture can be adaptive, and refined social learning can evolve, if individuals can identify and discard maladaptive culture. This suggests that the evolution of such "adaptive filtering" mechanisms may have been crucial for the birth of human culture. On the evolution of globular clusters and the origin of galactic halo stars. Evolution of globular clusters of galactic halo is considered.
It is shown that evolution of massive globular clusters with a greater degree of probability takes place under the effect of dynamic friction, which brings about the cluster fall on the center of galactic and their destruction by tidal forces. Evolution of small massive cluster takes place under the effect of dissipation.
https://spywuningafto.ga All the other reasons, causing the destruction of globular clusters gravitational tidal forces, mutual cluster collision, outflow of gas from red gigant atmospheres, the change of the radius of the cluster orbit at the expense of the change of the galaxy mass inside the cluster orbit play a secondary role.
The whole mass of the stars lost by globular clusters does not exceed 10 7 M sun. It is concluded that the origin of the star population of galactic halo field can not be explained by destruction of already formed only astral globular clusters.
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Full Text Available Researchers routinely adopt molecular clock assumptions in conducting sequence analyses to estimate dates for viral origins in humans. Characterisation of phase evolution under load by means of phase contrast imaging using synchrotron radiation. Besseghini, S. Phase contrast radiography PCR is a quite novel technique that is collecting increasing attention due to the possibility to obtain image information in presence of very small differences in the densities of the materials under analysis.
Phase contrast imaging PCI has some specific advantage when compared with common microscopic techniques: a no special preparation of the sample is needed b the simultaneously investigated area is very large and c it allows the setting up of complex experimental apparatus. The results here presented are a good evidence of these three advantages. In this paper, we report on the application of phase contrast imaging in the study of the phase evolution during pseudoelastic transformation in the NiTiCu shape memory alloys SMAs.
The investigation was undertaken with the aim to identify some modification of the structure taking place at the end of the transformation plateau in the pseudoelastic behaviour of the alloy. Primary and secondary organic aerosol origin by combined gas-particle phase source apportionment. Its formation involves several unknown precursors, formation and evolution pathways and multiple natural and anthropogenic sources.
Here a combined gas-particle phase source apportionment is applied to wintertime and summertime data collected in the megacity of Paris in order to investigate SOA origin during both seasons. A better constrained apportionment of primary OA POA sources is also achieved using this methodology, making use of gas- phase tracers.