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Circle of Light: Exile. Around , years ago, an emergency crash landing on Earth left the surviving crew of Around , years ago, an emergency crash landing on Earth left the surviving crew of an Alvar star ship stranded. They rapidly discovered Earth was one of several worlds across the galaxy where their government had exiled their worst criminals, View Product. Diary Secrets. During the Civil War, Charlotte Rose Frazier, a young girl from an old Virginia family, escapes with her learning disabled brother from their centuries-old Tidewater Virginia home.

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The Canadian northern boreal forest, like many of the world's great forests, offers the promise of untapped resources and economic opportunity for small marginalized forest communities with the development of the NTFP industry. NTFPs are all the botanical and mycological species of the forest, excluding conventional timber. The definition in Manitoba also includes animal products such as antlers, bones and trap lines. The general categories of NTFPs include wild crafts and floral supplies, wild foods and medicinal products.

From a Manitoba perspective, the people who are interested in and benefiting from the NTFP industry are certainly not those currently in the timber harvesting business. They tend to be those standing on the sidelines of society as a result of many different circumstances: usually lack of education or lack of opportunities within their communities.

They have been raised in a culture of traditional seasonal work and do not wish to leave their communities. Many are trapped in the false economy of social assistance, with no hope for the future and little opportunity. In northern Manitoba there are communities that have watched their forests being clear-cut, but have felt none of the economic benefits. In contrast, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that the NTFP industry will become an important part of the solution to the decades of unemployment and poverty that have plagued northern Canada.

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The NTFP industry provides an opportunity to engage in true sustainable forest management, benefiting both forest ecosystems and the communities that rely on them. NTFPs can be managed and harvested compatibly with timber, although more research and better communication between the various industry members are still necessary.

The mission of the NFDC is to work with communities and individuals seeking to develop economic opportunities that are aligned with local values and based on local resources, for the benefit of local people. The Centre has identified NTFPs as a realistic and practical income-generating opportunity that can be developed by building on local skills and knowledge. Based on a system of sustainable harvesting and use, the NFDC acts as a research, training, marketing, sales and service organization for the provincial NTFP industry.

The NFDC vision is an NTFP industry composed of a network of community-based and diverse microenterprises supported by a twenty-first century packaging and marketing infrastructure. The NFDC offers a ten-day community-based training course focusing on local resources, plant identification and basic ecology, sustainable harvesting and handling practices, aboriginal issues, low-technology value-added processing and marketing. The training includes a flexible combination of classroom, field and value-added processing exercises.

Additional speciality workshops have been developed to increase local opportunities in value-added products, such as the making of soap and salves, wreath making, antler jewellery and birch bark weaving. An important feature of this training is that there is no age or education restriction and the value-added processing opportunities are low technology and easily adapted by entrepreneurs residing in small communities.

In the NFDC purchased and marketed products from over harvesters in 25 communities. Included in the catalogue of over products are wild tea blends, skin salves, senega root, Labrador tea leaf, blue hyssop, sweet grass, sweet gale leaf, sweet flag root, bearberry leaf, black poplar buds and high bush cranberry bark, twig and balsam wreaths, diamond willow products and antler jewellery. In addition to providing marketing services, the NFDC assists interested producers in developing new products and helps with packaging, labelling and pricing.

The development of a sustainable NTFP industry, however small, brings some measure of economy and hope for the future. The industry gives a renewed sense of ownership and empowerment, which translates into a community-based urgency to protect and manage the forest resources that surround the communities. Forest management and conservation are now seen at the community level, with growing awareness of the many alternative and compatible values in the boreal forest. This will include harvester certification by species, permanent identification numbers for harvesters, development and monitoring of permanent sample plots for each local harvester association and the enforcement by local associations of a cohesive harvester code of ethics.

The Cooperative is currently pursuing a joint venture with the new owners of the local wild rice processing plant, which will see the seasonal wild rice processing operations diversified to include a number of other NTFP value-added processing activities. This emerging Manitoba NTFP industry is based on a sustainable and ethical wild harvest and is perhaps the most important aspect of the marketing strategy. A truly sustainable NTFP industry requires not only community-based education and training, but also the empowerment of forest communities to protect and manage this resource for themselves and their children.

The goal of the network is to accelerate and enhance the potential for these resources to make a significant contribution to the economic and social well-being of many rural and remote communities across Canada. Many of the lessons learned in Manitoba and British Columbia will become an important part of the network. It was also recognized that most current land and forest managers undergo a training and awareness-building process to begin to understand the many diversified values in the forest. Perhaps the time has come for the professional forester associations in Canada to demonstrate leadership in this area and implement a process to ensure forest resource managers are not missing the forest for the trees.

Contributed by: D. Canada's main Christmas tree species are balsam fir, spruce, Scots pine, lodgepole pine and Douglas fir. Some trees are harvested from natural forests while others, such as Scots pine, are grown on plantations. In , Christmas tree production volumes dropped by 3. The decrease in exports was probably because of the strong Canadian dollar, which appreciated by 7. Most of Canada's Christmas tree exports in were from Quebec 1. Source: The State of Canada's Forests CEPAF's purpose is to contribute to the solid development of agroforestry and NWFPs within Quebec rural communities by offering an array of services focused on the needs of the emerging industry for agroforestry products.

The people of northern Colombia have been eating ants for centuries. They believe the accurately named hormiga culona - big-bottom queen ant - is everything from a natural form of Viagra to a protein-rich defence against cancer. Now the invertebrates are going global: a businessman in Santander Province exported more than lbs kg of the inch-long 2. But even as the delicacy begins to expand beyond Colombia, the ants appear to be dwindling in Santander, which worries the region's ant-eating bipeds.

This year's harvest, which usually begins around Easter and lasts as late as June, was one of the worst on record, with peasants in Barichara reporting half their normal year's haul. Entomologists say the winter was unusually harsh and spring rains were late, which may have disturbed the virgin queen ants' nuptial flights - the one time a year when they emerge from their dune-like ant hills to seek a mate and form a new colony. Almost as often, the queens are snatched by lizards, birds or humans.

Expanding fields of beans, tomatoes and tobacco have also replaced the region's last remaining wilderness and farmers consider the leaf-cutting ants - the species Atta laevigata - to be serious pests. Whatever the local conditions, overseas demand by itself will not endanger the ant supply, say those involved in the trade. In Colombia, people generally toast the ants in salt at community gatherings and eat them as a snack. But there is innovation. Restaurants in Barichara offer an ant-based spread for bread and an ant-flavoured lamb sauce.

Edible, a United Kingdom novelty food brand sold about lbs During harvest time in Santander, ants are sold by the bagful at almost every roadside stop. The culona is a source of regional pride, its image gracing everything from the logo of a long-distance bus company to the provincial La Culona lottery. Non-wood forest products are the subject of three colourful new postage stamps issued by Costa Rica in October The three indigenous forest fruits featured are the guapinol Hymenaea courbaril , jorco Garcinia intermedia and achiote Bixa orelana.

Source: www. The Democratic Republic of the Congo has million ha of rain forest of which 20 million are subject to industrial timber licences and 9 million allocated to parks and nature reserves. Of the remaining 71 million, the uninhabited parts may be attributed to timber companies and the inhabited parts returned to local communities for livelihood purposes. In addition, the Democratic Republic has 45 million ha of miombo and deciduous forests that are also subject to logging, much of it illegal, as well as to preservation measures and use for rural livelihoods.

Ecotourism earned tens of millions of dollars for the Treasury during the s but yearly park revenues are now down to a trickle of several hundred thousand. The industrial production potential of the low altitude rain forests is estimated at 6 million m3 per year but the volume officially declared has never exceeded 0. At present, the volume produced by the informal sector amounts to 1. The majority of rural and urban households use wood for cooking. It is estimated that wood provides 80 percent of domestic energy, representing 6 million m3. The forest is also the habitat that provides 1.

Rain forest, miombo and deciduous systems all suffer from overexploitation and destruction. The forestry law primarily regulated timber exploitation. In , FAO provided technical assistance for the drafting of a modern code that was promulgated in August It has three objectives: ecological preservation, sustainable timber production and sustainable rural livelihoods.

Ecological preservation. Article 14 of the law states that 15 percent of the national territory must be covered by gazetted forests. There are four main categories of protected areas in the Democratic Republic: national parks nine sites , game reserves one site , forest reserves seven sites and farming reserves two sites. Other designations include areas set aside for scientific research or as hunting zones and nature reserves.

The existing protected area network covers an estimated km 2 8 percent of the land area. National parks, faunal reserves and game reserves are managed by the Congo Institute for Nature Conservation ICCN , which also manages scientific research. The EU is assisting a reform that will allow private-public partnerships for management purposes. The Democratic Republic of the Congo is opening up to new ways of giving economic value to its environmental services, such as bioprospecting and the prototype carbon fund.

Community forestry.

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Article 22 states that local communities may ask to obtain all or part of the forests that were controlled under customary law. The article reinstates historic rights that, from the point of view of the local communities, went unrecognized by the Congolese state. Implementation of this article is much in demand by the inhabitants, yet so far no forest has been returned to the control of any local community. Implementation of article 22 would bring the decentralization of forest governance and management that is necessary, in the context of the Democratic Republic, to safeguard the forest cover.

It could also improve the economic welfare of its inhabitants. Bioproducts of El Salvador es una empresa que se especializa en un producto no convencional. Fuente: La Prensa , 19 de junio During the contract time, LSDE will sell and deliver approximately 30 tonnes of the agroforestry products, whose development sites are in the Benshangul-Gumuz and Amhara states. The company's president said that the company would be harvesting and replanting bamboo and hybrid eucalyptus and other non-wood crops that could be used in pulp and paper manufacturing.

The project would be the first of its kind in Africa. Source: The Ethiopian Herald , 23 May Guards are being employed in the French countryside to protect wild mushrooms amid pitched battles between pickers salivating over the best harvest in living memory. Many mayors have introduced licences that authorize local people to search for mushrooms but ban outsiders. The system is gaining ground after sun and rain produced ideal conditions for ceps, chanterelles, Craterellus cornucopioides and other wild mushrooms.

Several dozen people are being investigated by the state prosecution service on suspicion of mushroom theft and breaking the French Forestry Code. They face fines of up to? Eric Cusson, who heads a team of guards in southwest France, said that many rural councils had followed M. Dulong's lead. About companies trade in wild mushrooms in France, paying pickers to find between 5 and 10 tonnes a year.

Forest fringe communities in Ghana, which are constrained by poverty, rely heavily on forest resources to satisfy present livelihood needs. In satisfying these needs, however, they apparently give little consideration to the future. This threatens the goal of sustainable forest management. TBI-Ghana Tropenbos International-Ghana believes the solution lies in combining awareness raising with the development of sustainable forest-based livelihood opportunities for these communities.

TBI-Ghana has developed various activities with local communities to reduce poverty and sustainable dependence on forests. An alternative livelihood project, carried out in collaboration with the local NGO Rural Development Youth Association, supported rural communities in developing grasscutter farms as an alternative to dependence on bushmeat. Grasscutters are rodents that can be easily raised and sold, as they are a preferred source of protein locally. Source: Tropenbos Annual Report A senior lecturer at the University of Development Studies has expressed concern over the rate at which shea trees are being destroyed to make land available for the cultivation of other economic trees such as cashew and mango.

Dr Joshua Adam Yidana warned that if measures were not taken to check the practice, a time would come when the country would not be able to meet international demand for shea butter. Dr Yidana was speaking at an interregional conference on the development of the shea industry in Tamale, northern Ghana. Dr Yidana said the country had a total population of 94 million shea trees, which produced about tonnes of shea butter. Sixty percent of the shea butter produced is used internally while 25 percent is exported. He also said that more than 2. He added that, unlike cocoa and other products, which had synthetic substitutes, the shea nut tree had no substitute; moreover, consumers now preferred organic or natural products.

The northern regional minister acknowledged the economic importance of the shea tree in the lives of rural women and emphasized the determination of the government to provide support for the growth of the shea industry in northern Ghana. Although the medicinal plant provided employment and income for more than 8 collectors, the practice of uncoordinated harvesting posed a threat to the benefits that could accrue to individuals, companies and the nation as a whole.

Mr Agyei said that farmers in the six regions had begun harvesting the seeds prematurely, ahead of the upcoming harvesting season, which commences in July. He said low-quality control protocols and assurance systems and lack of regulation could result in the supply of substandard products to the world market. BOTPAG has scheduled a series of sensitization programmes to educate farmers about harvesting practices and other quality control measures. Plant medicine remains a priority since about 65 percent of developing countries according to a World Health Organization report rely on it for treatment; hence the need for the government to support the industry.

Source: Accra Daily Mail , 15 June Voacanga africana. Locally called guchhi , this wild mushroom is found in the damp and dark forests of Himachal Pradesh at heights of 1 m above sea level. The much sought-after wild mushroom it cannot be cultivated begins to sprout in spring and continues to do so until early summer in the highlands of Shimla, Kullu, Kinnaur, Sirmaur, Chamba and Mandi districts. Some determined guchhi hunters go away for weeks to scour the mountains and valleys for guchhi before returning with their collection.

They sell the grey mushroom at high prices in Shimla, Chandigarh and Delhi markets. One guchhi merchant in Shimla said that hunters often send it to Delhi from where much of it is exported to Europe and the United States while the rest is used by luxury hotels. According to government officials, the production of guchhi mushroom in the state varies between 2 and 5 kg. But this year, the yield is expected to be one of the lowest. Source: NewKerala. Sunderban is a land mass criss-crossed with numerous rivers, creeks and channels and includes the single largest chunk of mangrove forest in India.

Because of the uniqueness and richness of its biodiversity, it enjoys the status of a World Heritage site. It is also home to the royal Bengal tiger.

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It is a source of livelihood for the poor villagers who live on the northern outskirts of this biosphere reserve. Among the variety of NWFPs available, honey and fish are the most important. Minor forest products MFPs specifically include grass, fruit, leaves, bark, exudates, animal products, soil and minerals; in short, MFPs cover all animal, vegetable and mineral products other than wood found and collected mainly in forest regions.

Honey and wax. Nectar is composed chiefly of sucrose with some fructose and glucose. It is used as food by bees and some of it is stored as honey after partial digestion. Honey contains percent invert sugar a mixture of dextrose and levulose , together with proteins, mineral salts and water. Besides its consumption as food, honey is used in Indian medicine. Honey is provided by the wild bee Apis dorsata rock bee and the domesticated Apis indica Indian bee. A wild single comb can yield up to 35 kg honey and 1 kg wax.

Honey collection in Sunderban. Honey collection is allowed only within the buffer zone leaving the area of the Sajnekhali Wildlife Sanctuary and permits are issued to the traditional Moulis with registered boats. The collection of honey is regulated as per requirement allowing a fixed tariff per unit weight to the honey collector for the collection of honey and wax. Honey collection is a dangerous practice since collectors quite frequently fall prey to tigers. The high casualty figures of honey collectors 56 dead and 11 injured from to are cause for reflection.

The management strategy should be to reduce honey collection gradually and the use of musk, tiger guard and other protective measures should be enforced so that the casualty figure is minimized. The quantity of honey and beeswax, together with the total revenue obtained in the Sundarban Tiger Reserve are given in the Table below. The author is grateful to Shri A. Raha, Director of the Sunderban Biosphere Reserve for providing this crucial information. Contributed by: S. A wonder product made of bamboo and jute natural fibre will now help schoolchildren in Kargil to attend classes comfortably, even when it is freezing outside.

The innovative combination has been developed by A B Composites Ltd in a small-scale industrial unit on the outskirts of Kolkata. The product not only controls temperature but is also resistant to termites, fire and acid and even blocks harmful ultraviolet rays. Furthermore, it is earthquake-proof. Its light weight and its strength have made it an obvious choice for relief shelters in the tsunami-hit Andamans. And the company is already working on 10 of these shelters. This innovation has won the National Award for Research and Development.

Source: NDTV. This showed a 9. Source: MehrNews. A recent dossier prepared by Alberi e Territorio focused on mushrooms and truffles, both of which have an important cultural and economic role in Italian society.

Source: Alberi e Territorio , 12, Mugolio is an essential oil derived from Pinus mugo and can be considered a good example of integrated development at the territorial level. The product is also certified by the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification schemes PEFC because the oil is extracted from certified mugo pine forests, which is a guarantee of the sustainability and traceability of the source. Source: Alberi e Territori o, , Alberi e Territorio Trees and territory is a magazine that covers the scientific, technical and cultural aspects of sustainable management of the environment.

Although published in Italian, there are short English abstracts. There are eight issues per year and in the magazine substituted Monti e Boschi Mountains and woods , which had been published since E-mail: redazioneaf interfree. The baobab tree is a symbol of the vast prairies of Africa. The jam made from its fruit is unique in its soft, sweet and sour taste.

THE LISTINGS: FEB. 3-FEB. 9 - The New York Times

Tsuneo Kurokawa believes that people will buy it. The campaign is the flagship of JICA's Africa assistance programme, designed to help communities beat poverty. Forty-five products from seven countries were recommended, mostly based on suggestions from members of Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers, sent by JICA and working in rural provinces.

Honey from mangrove forests in Senegal, pink pepper from Madagascar and furniture and leatherwork from Ethiopia are just a few of the suggested products. Kurokawa is now in the process of promoting these products with help from the Japan External Trade Organization, a government-sponsored trade promoter. Government-to-government aid alone has not been able to bring about change to poverty there, as armed conflict and coup attempts continued in many of these nations following their independence. Moisturizing cream made in Ghana from shea butter is already on sale and proving to be popular in Japan.

Kurokawa dreams of prosperity for the vast African continent and is determined to help make it come true with this campaign. Beekeepers are worried that locust trees, famous for their flowers producing high-quality honey, may be designated as a harmful alien species that threatens the habitat of local trees under a newly enacted law, industry sources said.

The locust tree is a broadleaf tree that comes from North America and was introduced to Japan during the early Meiji era. About half of the 2 tonnes of honey produced in Japan in were taken from locust tree flowers. In particular, beekeepers in eastern Japan rely heavily on locust trees for their production of honey. However, the Ministry of the Environment put the locust tree on a list of dangerous species in August on the grounds that it is highly prolific and could endanger the habitats of Japanese trees.

The law prohibits anyone to grow the designated alien species and urges that it be removed. However, the environment division of the Niigata prefectural government said that it will cut down locust trees if they are designated by law as harmful alien species. This report presents the results of a small survey of visitors to the Lao People's Democratic Republic. The aim of the survey was to estimate the total and potential number of visitors to rural ecotourism sites in the country, their interests and activities during visits, their expenditure during visits and the contribution that this expenditure might make to rural incomes and poverty alleviation.

The results suggest that a total of 81 people may visit rural ecotourism sites in the country each year. This would be equal to 0. However, the number of ecotourism sites is currently quite small, suggesting that this expenditure accounts for a considerably greater proportion of rural income in these areas.

Because of the very small sample size in this survey, the estimates presented above are not very precise. The report makes a number of suggestions as to how this information could be improved in the future. Another source of imprecision is the definition of ecotourism. The figures presented here are much lower than similar figures in national tourism statistics, but it is believed that they represent a more restrictive definition of ecotourism i. E-mail: adrian. Recent field surveys have revealed the high proportion and variety of gathered forest products in the daily diet of rural Lao families.

Over of these edible NTFPs have been recorded so far: edible shoots and other vegetables, fruits, tubers, mushrooms, small water animals, wildlife, etc. The direct contribution of NTFPs to food security in valuation studies is approximately 50 percent compared with that of rice, the staple food; together these foods make up around 80 percent of the total value of family subsistence expenditure. NTFPs also contribute indirectly to food security, as they can be sold to buy rice in times of shortage. NTFPs are estimated to contribute percent of the cash income of Lao rural households.

A similar amount of 50 percent of average household cash income is used to buy rice more for the poorer families. The availability of this safety net is declining alarmingly with rapid deforestation for timber logging and conversion of forests to agriculture. The challenge is to adopt land use systems that will keep enough forests in the landscape and allow access to forest resources for the poor.

Another option is to domesticate wild species in agroforestry systems and gardens. Many examples can be found of local farmers experimenting with ways to grow wild plants. Lao forest foods also have a potential in niche markets for the export of gourmet foods. Awareness-raising strategies could be applied to maintain popular pride in this rich cultural tradition of such a diverse range of natural food products. E-mail: jfoppes snv. Some 70 percent of Lao people live in upland communities. Marketing of NTFPs is their main source of cash income, most of which is used to buy rice, since rice shortages are a key issue in upland livelihoods.

Consequently, the marketing of NTFPs is directly linked to food security. This leads to rapid depletion of some products from the forests e. It also leads to more conflicts among communities on the use of common forest resources. Many local initiatives exist to increase production of NTFPs in gardens. Yet income from NTFP marketing does not increase. There is a lack of government regulations on NTFP trade to support private sector development. Prices remain low because products are mainly sold raw, since there are few initiatives to add value through quality improvement or processing.

Information on quality criteria or processing methods is not available. There are no systems for capturing and disseminating market information. The Lao Government and various foreign donor-supported projects are helping local initiatives to link farmers to markets, manage common forest resources in a context of participatory land use planning and promote domestication of NTFPs. Some good examples exist of organizing clusters of upland communities to cooperate with the private sector in setting up more efficient and profitable marketing systems.

A national taskforce has just started to develop an MIS at the national level. At all these levels there is an urgent need to establish partnerships with organizations in China, Viet Nam and Thailand, to collect and disseminate NTFP market information. E-mail: jfoppes snvworld. Researchers are looking at various inducement techniques to produce aromatic gaharu on a commercial scale.

The Forest Research Institute of Malaysia FRIM began research in the late s following a surge in market demand for the resin and it is still refining its inoculation technique. Based on anecdotes from Orang Asli collectors, researchers deliberately wound the tree trunk and, indeed, gaharu has been produced in. However, the grade obtained was inconsistent. Over Aquilaria malaccensis saplings were planted on a 1-ha trial plot at the Institute's research station at Bukit Hari between and Artificial inducement was carried out after three years but the trees did not respond.

In gaharu -producing species such as Aquilaria , the tree will produce the resin to contain the infection from spreading, covering the wound and blackening the whitish heartwood. That's how gaharu is produced. The senior research officer in the biotechnology division says the research initially focused on inoculation trials but later expanded to cover the biological aspect, economic value, trade and chemical analysis of the fragrant resin.

Seeds were screened for fast-growth and single-bole characteristics at the cellular level and lead researcher Dr Rusli Ibrahim claims he has found the secret formula after one year of experimentation. Five hundred plantlets are growing in a trial plot near Dengkil. Rusli says two other research groups will look for suitable antagonists to induce the tree and the best extraction technique to yield oil of the desired chemical composition.

MINT has submitted four funding proposals under the Ninth Malaysian Plan to support the research work which will also include developing a standard grading system for woodchips and oil extracts. Source: Malaysia Star , 15 August The government has identified medicinal plants as huge potential assets that will generate economic growth for the country. The Deputy Minister urged researchers, academicians and industry operators to seize the opportunity by stepping up their research and development activities to produce new medicines and market them worldwide.

Fuente: La Prensa , 5 de junio The prime programme objectives of BDS-MaPS are to raise income in rural Nepal through interventions aimed at increasing the production, processing and sale of NTFPs, spices and high-value agricultural products. The project target is to increase the income of 9 direct and 13 indirect beneficiary households impacting over people in Maoist-affected districts.

The programme is focused on helping participating landless community forest users, smallholders and micro- and small enterprises to increase their incomes from the collection, cultivation and sale of NTFPs, spices and high-value agriculture commodities in local, national, regional and international markets. In its first 15 months, BDS-MaPS worked to enable 2 direct beneficiary households 15 people and 5 indirect beneficiary ones 33 people.

Why we are there. NTFPs, spices and high-value agriculture commodities are among the most important resources of Nepal and directly connected with the daily livelihood of the rural poor. They could represent Nepal's high potential products to be equitably used for rural income generation. Other resource-poor people, e.

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Furthermore, BDS-MaPS has been able to involve, despite the ongoing political conflicts in the country, the seven districts of the far western, mid-western and western development regions of Nepal, where poverty is rampant. NTFP resources are yet to be fully commercialized to maximize benefits for the poor; poverty that has given rise to the conditions that have allowed insurgency to develop. The supply chain development to build up the capacity of service providers, small farmers, community forest user groups, collectors, traders and agro-input suppliers for business development has been established in 12 pockets across seven districts.

Over 5 BDS-MaPS has also helped 8 households to increase their income through cultivation, production and market linkages, despite the insurgency. It has increased the average income of these families by about 83 percent in 15 months. Six trade networks - one for each district - have been established. BDS-MaPS has worked closely with governmental and non-governmental agencies in production, cultivation and marketing and in making necessary policy reforms. Contributed by: P. E-mail: pradeep.

Colavito, e-mail: Lcolavito winrock. And that was a good sign that the Maori had got it right with the design, Nga Mana Toopu spokesman Wiremu Puke told the crowd that turned up for the official opening. The Te Parapara Garden, when completed in three years, will be the first to recreate traditional Maori gardening practices. The project aims to reconstruct Maori garden features and carved structures that were present along the Waikato River between and The challenge now is to raise the money needed to build the garden. Las piezas canastas, floreros, maceteras etc. Fuente: La Prensa , 17 de mayo Del cuajipal, una de las especies nacionales de lagartos, se aprovecha su cuero.

Fuente: El Nuevo Diario , 5 de abril Fuente: La Prensa , 11 de enero Con apoyo del Banco Mundial instalaron un planta para extraer aceites de esencias para comercializarlo en la costa oeste de Estados Unidos. Fuente: La Prensa , 12 de julio Smits, Nicaragua.

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Findings revealed that deforestation is also impacting fuelwood supply. Real fuelwood prices in various parts of the country have doubled in the last two decades because of increased collection and transportation costs. If Nigeria loses its remaining forest resources, the economic cost will be substantially higher than the current losses.

Not only would the current NWFP and timber revenues be lost, but also a considerable part of the fuelwood supply. The present value of annual cost of yield losses from to is at least N billion per year, or 1. Overall, poor management and degradation of croplands and rangelands together with forest losses and degradation are costing at least N billion per year, 6. This is just the direct cost and does not include the economic multiplier effects and dynamic gains of increased rural incomes that would have prevailed in the absence of poor management and degradation.

Source: Vanguard [Nigeria], 14 July A major sociopolitical issue in the Niger Delta region today is access to land. Local people complain bitterly about having lost so much land to oil operations. Traditionally, local people have depended heavily on the non-timber resources of the forests to make a living. They rely on a wide variety of forest products for domestic use and for sale in traditional markets.

These include fuelwood, fibres, leaves, dyes, fruits and nuts, medicinal plants, barks and roots, spices, palm wine, snails and wild game. The much-reduced forest cover has increased pressure on the remaining forests, which are now suffering from overuse that is further exacerbated by high demand from the expanding towns and cities.

It has been well established that wealthier people in urban areas utilize far more forest resource derivatives than the poor who directly depend on them. People at the grassroots level unfortunately are not benefiting from the increased exploitation of non-timber forest resources. Intermediaries package most of the harvest for urban markets, where they make huge gains. There are very few returns to the rural economy; in general, there is a net transfer of resources from rural to urban areas.

One of the greatest challenges to human development in the Niger Delta region is how to win people back to the traditional livelihoods that sustained them in the past. As in other parts of the country, younger people have left rural areas. The fundamental issue is how traditional occupational pursuits can coexist with oil production activities in an atmosphere of mutual suspicion and recrimination.

Interest in traditional economic pursuits such as agriculture and fishing cannot be promoted so long as easy money flows from the oil companies, albeit on an unsustainable basis. Source: Vanguard [Nigeria], 15 August Results of the present investigation were based on species belonging to 40 families of Angiosperms.

Based upon their utility, 80 species 40 families were used as medicinally important plants, 24 species 13 families were found to be useful for timber and fuelwood purposes and 17 grass species were used as fodder. These plant species also have other benefits, together with their major uses such as apiculture, sericulture, food and fruits, etc. Most of the species are multipurpose. The hilly tract is not only responsible for providing benefits such as medicines, timber, fuelwood and fodder, but also plays a role in the biodiversity conservation of the area.

For many years there has been a good sustainable relationship between the needs of the people and the benefits extracted from the hills, e. Thus the natural biodiversity of Kala Chitta has been preserved. However, increased population and demand are causing great pressure on the products of the area. This continuous pressure over the last few decades has damaged disastrously the natural characteristic ecosystem of the area. To understand the indigenous knowledge of the local people through ethnobotany is very important for creating awareness among them with regard to sustainable natural resource management. About informants including local people, hakims and medicinal business people were interviewed and ethnomedicinal data were collected through a questionnaire. Results were compiled, issues discussed, conclusions reached and recommendations made for the future.

Further investigation phytochemically as well as pharmacologically should be undertaken in such potentially important areas to provide an extensive basis for the medicinal industries in Pakistan to earn foreign exchange. Attock, Punjab, Pakistan. E-mail: tariqbangish hotmail.