Many youth are also dealing with complex family histories of abuse and addiction which makes it even more challenging to break free and grow into healthy, independent adults with dreams and plans for the future. Check out these stories of young Native Americans who are working through stories of pain and struggle and finding hope and inspiration. At the root of many of the health, education, economic, and culture challenges faced by Native Americans is tension over economic opportunity and property rights , specifically over tribal lands.
The tension over tribal lands has deep historical roots. The federal trust relationship is driven by the idea that tribal nations are not capable of administering or managing their own lands. Without the right to own or manage their own lands, tribes are handicapped from economic activity and development and left out of important conversations like the recent controversy surrounding the Dakota Access Pipeline.
Many tribes have close ties to the land on which they live, even if the current footprint of land is much smaller than their original region. And many tribes might not choose to develop their tribal lands or leverage their rich natural resources because of a desire to preserve and maintain the integrity of sacred spaces.
However, they are unable to make free choices about how to conduct their economic affairs and are not given a full voice in the decisions surrounding sacred lands due to their severely restricted property rights. Native American tribes desperately need access to the wealth and resources that rightfully belong to them. All of these current challenges--lack of educational opportunity, physical and mental health disparities, the intense impact of historical trauma, lack of economic independence--are part of the great tragedy facing Native Americans: the loss of Native American culture and identity.
The traditional ways of life, the tribal languages, the songs and dances, the wisdom of elders, and the strong values that once animated Native cultures have in many cases been threatened or extinguished. Even for tribes who have managed to recover or maintain a strong sense of their cultural heritage, there is still the present difficulty of understanding how tribal identity can coexist with modern, Western culture which opposes it in so many ways.
Many Native Americans, especially young people, are ashamed of whom they are and wish they could be different. They look at themselves and their families, and they do not see goodness or resilience, only pain and suffering. The pain and the suffering of the Native American people cannot be ignored any longer. We have to acknowledge the huge barriers that exist that work to keep young Natives stuck in the same cycles of abuse and poverty as have existed for generations.
In order to move forward into a new era of revitalization and hope, we must confront and understand the enormous destruction and suffering that has been caused by centuries of discrimination and hardship. Subscribe to our weekly blog, Voices of Indian Country, to receive our stories.
Keep reading for more on the foundations and the future of Native American life. Other tribes joined the British in the hopes that if the British won, they would put a stop to colonial expansion in the west, as they had done with the Royal Proclamation of As a whole, the tribes of the Wabanaki Confederacy were reluctant to join the war effort but some members of the various tribes did take part in a few engagements, according to Colin G.
Massachusetts passed a resolution in July of that five hundred Micmac and Maliseet Saint Johns Indians be employed in the continental service. Maliseet chiefs Ambrose St.
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Delegates who attended the Treaty of Watertown in exceeded their authority in committing the tribes to the American cause. The tribes split as British power and British goods exerted increasing influence. About a hundred principal men of the Micmac, Maliseet, and Passamaquoddy tribes took an oath of allegiance to King George between September to January A dozen Pigwackets from western Maine petitioned Massachusetts for permission to enlist. The Maliseet was a tribe with a population of several hundred that lived in Maine, and the Passamaquoddy was an eastern group of Maliseet that lived in Maine and New Brunswick.
A Tory and a patriot wrestle over a liberty tree banner while a Native watches, illustration depicts British and American struggle for land ownership in North America, published in Paris circa The Indians retained their way of life, living together as was their custom, and hunting game for food. There was little actual fighting, but the Americans had the satisfaction of knowing that several hundred Maliseet would not join English forces. Their biggest contribution was as spies going to Canada and returning with news of the English plans, and attacking English coastal shipping.
The Indians played a leading role in preventing an English attack on Machias by sea from being successful. The story of a young Indian lad who shot and killed the English officer of a landing barge, resulting in the English retreat, has become an important traditional tale among the Passamaquoddy.
A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies
On July 19, , the Micmac and Maliseet signed the Treaty of Watertown, which was a treaty of alliance and friendship signed between the two tribes and the United States. On December 24, , General George Washington wrote the Passamaquoddy tribe a letter asking them to send him warriors. The Penobscot tribe and the Passamaquoddy responded by providing warriors. In August of , Chief Francis Joseph Neptune of the Passamaquoddy tribe reportedly fired one of the first shots of the Battle of Machias in Maine, hitting and killing a British officer standing on the deck of the British frigate Mermaid at a considerable distance.
Throughout the war, the Massachusetts government continued to provide the Passamaquoddy with supplies and ammunition in recognition of their service. After the war ended in , Neptune worked continuously to prevent white encroachment on Indian lands in Maine. In , Neptune and other tribal leaders secured a land treaty from the Massachusetts government that included a 23, acre reservation near Perry, Maine. The Penobscot, a tribe with a population of a few hundred who lived in Maine, had been long-standing allies of the French during the earlier colonial wars.
The Penobscot never formally sided with the Americans during the Revolutionary War and refused to commit the tribe as a whole to the war effort but allowed some of their young men to enlist. In recognition for their service, the Penobscot were later awarded a reservation at Indian Island, Old Town, Maine around The Abenaki, a tribe who lived in northern New England and the southern part of the Canadian Maritimes, were divided on the issue of the Revolutionary War and fought in small engagements for both the British and the Americans, according to Calloway:.
All they disagreed on was the means to that end. Neutrality was a perilous strategy, more likely to make the village a target than a haven when British and Americans alike adhered to the notion that if Indians were not fighting for you they would fight against you. Many Abenakis opted instead for limited and sometimes equivocal involvement in the conflict. The family-band structure of Abenaki society meant that different people could espouse different allegiances without tearing the community apart.
Individual participation on both sides, though limited and part of no master strategy, also allowed flexibility as the fortunes of war shifted. The Revolution would not leave the Abenakis alone, but they could divert it into less destructive channels. As a result, the Abenaki became even more divided over the war. After the war ended, only about 1, Abenaki remained. With the American victory in the war, more and more white settlers began to encroach on Abenaki land and various states began to buy up Abenaki land.
In the first ten years after the war, most of the Abenaki left the United States and settled in Canada. In , Canada awarded the Abenaki land for a reservation. Animosity between the Abenaki and the Americans continued into the 19th century, prompting many warriors to fight for the British in the War of In February of , George Washington wrote a letter to the Grand Chief of the Micmac tribe asking for their assistance in the war. Seven captains of the Micmac and three Maliseet captains responded and traveled to Watertown, Mass on July 10, Major Shaw brought these captains in his sloop from Machias, Maine to Salem, Mass where they continued their journey to Watertown in carriages provided by the military.
Their decision to ally themselves with the Americans was probably based on a number of factors, according to an article by Bryan Rindfleisch on the Journal of the American Revolution website:. It would take no leap of the imagination to believe that the Mohican felt enormous pressure, if not the threat of intimidation and violence, to join the revolutionary movement. Yet the Stockbridge-Mohican also saw the revolution undoubtedly as an opportunity.
If they sided with the American rebels and proved their loyalty, the new nation might respect or honor their attempts to reclaim lost lands and to protect their sovereignty. In April of , the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts sent a message to Chief Solomon Wahaunwanwanmeet of the Stockbridge Nation informing him of the possibility of a war with the British and asked for continued friendly relations with his tribe.
In response, Chief Solomon visited Boston and made a speech pledging the loyalty of his tribe. Pope The Stockbridge Mohicans went on to fight in some of the earliest battles of the war and were reportedly among the militiamen at Lexington and Concord in April of , according to Rindfleisch. Mohican warriors are said to have lined up alongside American militiamen along Battle Road and fired upon British soldiers as they marched back to Boston and then joined the militiamen in Cambridge as they besieged the British army within Boston.
During the ten-month-long Siege of Boston, the Stockbridge Mohicans helped build fortifications, patrolled the outer defenses and even conducted ambushes on British forces. Although George Washington was reluctant to allow the Stockbridge Mohicans to officially join the Continental Army , he eventually had a change of heart and allowed them to enlist. The Stockbridge Mohicans were not sufficiently rewarded for their service though and their families at home went hungry and half naked, receiving no aid from the Continental Congress despite pleas on their behalf from George Washington himself.
In the s, the Stockbridge moved to New York to escape encroachment by white settlers in Massachusetts and lived alongside the Oneida tribe. When the U. The Shawnee, a tribe who lived in the Ohio River Valley.
Biography of Bartolomé de Las Casas, Spanish Colonist
When the Revolutionary War first broke out, most Shawnee tried to remain neutral and, in early , around Shawnee families moved away from the Scioto River Valley to avoid getting drawn into the war. American encroachment on Shawnee land persisted though and the tribe soon became divided on the issue. Shawnee tribes that had already allied themselves with the British threatened other Shawnee tribes with attack if they sided with the colonists.
Why are so many Arabs reading this? BHH why does it matter? Lists with This Book. Community Reviews. Showing Average rating 3. Rating details. More filters. Sort order. May 20, Hadrian rated it really liked it Shelves: nonfiction , latin-america-and-iberia , history , for-class. Casas wrote this partly out of a very human concern for the lives of others, and partly from his own convictions and his sense of faith - he was convinced that God would punish the Kingdom of Spain for its sins unless something was done. A retelling of wars, atrocities, tortures, exterminations, enslavement, and so forth in the 16th century in Cuba, Hispaniola, Mexico, Colombia.
With contemporary illustrations! The main motives seem to be covered by greed for gold, deception with religion, or jus Casas wrote this partly out of a very human concern for the lives of others, and partly from his own convictions and his sense of faith - he was convinced that God would punish the Kingdom of Spain for its sins unless something was done. The main motives seem to be covered by greed for gold, deception with religion, or just cruelty.
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This is also an early modern instance of atrocity being used as political propaganda, with Protestant nations such as England circulating this document as proof of Catholic depravity and corruption, and later historians attempting to white-wash pardon the hideous pun Spain's history, especially under the Franco regime.
I recall another edition of the book being republished just in time for the Spanish-American War. Although the majority of the Native American depopulation was likely carried out by disease, and some events appear to be exaggerated, this does not detract too much from de las Casas' frightening message.
He saw terrible things happening and wanted to do something about it. It is this reason, and his being a lone voice in the wilderness, are why he endures. View 1 comment. Oct 17, Maru Kun rated it really liked it Shelves: c-cuba , c-mexico , c-spain , regions-south-america , the-pastthc , 16th-century-lit , c-peru. I can well understand that Las Casas deserves as much respect as any witness to the Holocaust more familiar to our age.
What made this the man so different from his co-religionists responsible for the above list? A morality arising from his upbringing? A sense of compassion perhaps based on genetics? Or on rational thought? Or simply fear of Judgment Day? How could the same culture, upbringing and system of belief produce both good such as Las Casas and the evil as the conquistadors? A question much reflected on but as unanswerable today as it has ever been. The warning of the native nobleman who fled from Hispaniola to tell the natives of Cuba about the danger they faced from the Spanish deserves to be the last word.
I wonder how it read in the Spanish imperial court? Does any of you know why it is that they behave this way? And when they answered him: 'No, unless it be that they are innately cruel and evil'. He replied: 'It is not simply that. They have a God whom they worship and adore, and it is in order to get that God from us He had beside him as he spoke a basket filled with gold jewelry.
View all 3 comments. Apr 09, Alexander Santiago rated it it was amazing Shelves: the-latin-experience. This book is something of a controversy amongst us caribbean latinos: some see it as a living testament to the atrocities and cruelties our Spanish ancestors inflicted on the natives in the Spanish quest and greed for gold in the New World; others have viewed it as pure propaganda, biased accounts and outright lies. I haven't really taken a position on this, but I can say that this had to have been the most disturbing book I have read. Told from the account of a Spanish colonizer who went to His This book is something of a controversy amongst us caribbean latinos: some see it as a living testament to the atrocities and cruelties our Spanish ancestors inflicted on the natives in the Spanish quest and greed for gold in the New World; others have viewed it as pure propaganda, biased accounts and outright lies.
Told from the account of a Spanish colonizer who went to Hispaniola to make his fortune, de las Casas soon took up the cause even petitioning the King of Spain at the time of the native Peoples of not only of the Native peoples on the island of Hispaniola, but of all of the Native peoples and their lands who were "conquered" and ruled by the Spanish crown.
The use of 'human' abattoirs, mastiffs, killing for the sake of killing, all are listed in this book and was used as plea to the Spanish royal court to at least send out a decree to 'convert' the native peoples to christianity much to no avail. In hindsight, a sad and disturbing account of man's inhumanity to man fueled by his lust for riches. Oct 16, Branko Jovanovski rated it really liked it. The book sheds the missing light of the well established stereotype of the "enlightened" conquest of paradise. Jul 11, Deirdre rated it it was amazing Shelves: classic , history.
As historians and critics we try always to interpret documents in the context of the times out of which they were produced. We recognise that dominant ideologies in other cultures and other times were very different from our own. But then a rare and very different voice speaks to us, demonstrating that the dominant opinions were not the only ones, that there were a few rare minds interpreting their own times in ways we recognise. Such a voice is that of de Las Casas. He was a Spanish colonist op As historians and critics we try always to interpret documents in the context of the times out of which they were produced.
He was a Spanish colonist operating for years in the Caribbean and South America who had an epiphany after years of witnessing the torture, genocide and slavery of the indigenous peoples at the hands of his own people. He gave up slave owning and became a priest. After 6 years of missionary work preaching unsuccessfully for the end of slavery, he took his campaign back to Spain.
This work was his petition to the King of Spain and his work was instrumental in the implementation of reforms back in the New World. It is a must read for anyone interest in the history of imperialism and colonial practices. Jul 31, Graychin rated it liked it. How do you give a star rating to something like this? It is a very painful read. But talk about a complicated, fateful figure… Las Casas settled on Hispaniola in How do you give a star rating to something like this?
But talk about a complicated, fateful figure… Las Casas settled on Hispaniola in and participated in the enslavement of the native population. He argued against the Dominicans who had complained, loudly, of the abuse of the Indians by the Spanish. In fact, Las Casas was instrumental in getting the Dominicans temporarily thrown out of Hispaniola. As an ordained priest he accompanied armed expeditions in the conquest of Cuba and was a first-hand witness of incredible atrocities. For his service he was awarded a large grant of land and hundreds of Indian slaves.
Disgusted with himself, he renounced his whole life to date. Eventually, Las Casas became a Dominican novice himself. He spent the rest of his life documenting and fighting against the oppression and genocide of the natives, and what he argued was the grossly illegal seizure and destruction of their property and land. Though he came to regret it later, it was Las Casas who first suggested the importation of African slave labor to alleviate the burden placed on the Native Americans. I had to read this for World Literature Basically, the Spanish go everywhere in the Indies and do unspeakable things to the natives.
So, all we can really take from this narrative is: The Spanish probablyyyy weren't very nice. Jun 22, Conor rated it it was ok Shelves: non-fiction , latin-america. Man, white people have done some really awful shit. Nov 14, The Dyslexic Bookworm rated it liked it Shelves: nonfiction , classics , college-freshman. But it also illustrates the white savior complex, as the author details how they will save the people from slavery. Overall it was interesting to read.
Sep 10, Czarny Pies rated it it was amazing Recommends it for: Anyone even remotely interested in world history. Recommended to Czarny by: Everyone. It is a well recognized classic. Shelves: lat-amer-hist. This short document should be read by all those studying history as undergraduates and by anyone even moderately interested in the colonisation of the New World.
A Spaniard and a Dominican friar, Las Casas was horrified by the atrocities that he saw being committed by his countrymen against the local Indian populations in the countries that they were seeking to colonize and economically exploit. Las Casas spend over forty years pleading for changes to the methods used by the Spaniards which were This short document should be read by all those studying history as undergraduates and by anyone even moderately interested in the colonisation of the New World.
Las Casas spend over forty years pleading for changes to the methods used by the Spaniards which were resulting in great loss of life and intense misery amongst the indigenous population. In the view of Las Casas the atrocities were unnecessary, did nothing to increase the wealth of the Spanish nation and were only undermining the reputation of the Spanish crown.
Las Casas presents his case with great vehemence but today with some nuances his analysis is the one that we all accept. The existence of the "Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies" shows that the brutality of the colonizers was a matter of public notoriety from the early sixteenth century onward and that those in power in the colonizing countries were certainly aware of it. The Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies dispels the myth that no one knew what was happening.
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However, the book raises as many questions as it answers. It has become a staple for history students in North American universities and deserves the widest possible audience. This book which requires less than an evening to read delivers a great deal to anyone interested in history. Mar 12, Zana rated it liked it Recommends it for: people interested in Latin American history.
Shelves: reviewed. While he advocated indigenous rights, he did so within the culture and context of colonial Spain so his views were inadvertently racist when viewed through the lens of the modern day. We don't really seem to touch on views which don't fit our current narrative.
While discussions on de las Casas's political motives and intentions might derail us from the topic of indigenous rights, it is always good to remember that issues such as indigenous rights are more complicated than the mere two sides of a coin could ever present. Anyway, let's get on with the review. In the Penguin edition, I think reading the introduction by Anthony Pagden is essential to understanding the situation in mainland Spain during its early colonial ventures.
Pagden breaks down de las Casas's viewpoint, both politically and socially, and not to mention, religiously. It is a good rundown on how politics and religion affected de las Casas's actions. While advocating for indigenous rights was the "right" thing to do in his mind from a social justice viewpoint , he also viewed this issue from a religiopolitical standpoint. If the Spanish Crown continued letting its conquistadores run free in the New World inflicting their reign of terror on the native inhabitants, then God will surely inflict divine punishment on Spain and its people.
It is always interesting to see where historical figures come from. I'll admit, I only knew about de las Casas and his defence of the Indians, and I was ignorant of how the politics of mainland Spain in the early colonial period affected de las Casas, so it was interesting to learn about the backstory concerning how the situation on the continent affected--or most likely, did not affect--the policies of the Spanish colonies. On the actual historical document itself, this was essentially written to persuade Prince Philip II to right the wrongs caused by the Spanish conquistadores before Spain gets sent to hell in a handbasket.
The case studies shown are very repetitive. Basically, this is how it goes: 1. Conquistadores land on new territory. The inhabitants show them the utmost courtesy by being extremely hospitable and giving them gifts of gold.